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Award Detail

Awardee:BROWN UNIVERSITY IN PROVIDENCE IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND AND PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS
Doing Business As Name:Brown University
PD/PI:
  • Elizabeth L Brainerd
  • (401) 863-9261
  • elizabeth_brainerd@brown.edu
Co-PD(s)/co-PI(s):
  • Stephen M Gatesy
  • David H Laidlaw
Award Date:04/13/2006
Estimated Total Award Amount: $ 345,486
Funds Obligated to Date: $ 345,486
  • FY 2008=$114,111
  • FY 2006=$113,331
  • FY 2007=$118,044
Start Date:06/01/2006
End Date:05/31/2010
Transaction Type:Grant
Agency:NSF
Awarding Agency Code:4900
Funding Agency Code:4900
CFDA Number:47.074
Primary Program Source:490100 NSF RESEARCH & RELATED ACTIVIT
Award Title or Description:IDBR: Hardware and Software Development for 3D Visualization of Rapid Skeletal Motion in Vertebrate Animals
Federal Award ID Number:0552051
DUNS ID:001785542
Parent DUNS ID:001785542
Program:INSTRUMENTAT & INSTRUMENT DEVP

Awardee Location

Street:BOX 1929
City:Providence
State:RI
ZIP:02912-9002
County:Providence
Country:US
Awardee Cong. District:01

Primary Place of Performance

Organization Name:Brown University
Street:BOX 1929
City:Providence
State:RI
ZIP:02912-9002
County:Providence
Country:US
Cong. District:01

Abstract at Time of Award

This award is for the development of instrumentation for 3D visualization of rapid skeletal motion in vertebrates. Its two primary components are (1) a high-speed, biplane X-ray fluoroscopy system and (2) automated software for precise, 3D skeletal animation by aligning 3D CT bone models with pairs of 2D X-ray images. The result will be a substantial advance over technology that is currently available for research in vertebrate functional morphology and biomechanics. The objective is to make dynamic 3D skeletal imaging an affordable and widely available technique. The new combination of high-speed, biplane X-ray and 3D visualization software is named "CTX imaging." Vertebrate functional morphology is an active and growing subfield of organismal biology in which the mechanical and evolutionary relationships between anatomical form and biomechanical function are investigated. For example, the action of long tendons as springs in kangaroo hopping, the effect of mouth size and shape on suction feeding in fish, and the function of the "wishbone" in bird flight have all been explained in the past two decades by functional morphologists. New discoveries in functional morphology have consistently been driven by the introduction of new technologies, such as high-speed cameras, electromyography, force plates and digital particle image velocimetry. Natural movements in animals almost always occur in 3D and often are very fast. Quantification of rapid skeletal movement in 3D would be a powerful technique for relating form to function, but functional morphologists have had no technique for measuring bone movements in 3D. The movement of external markers on the skin is generally used as a proxy for skeletal movement, but skin is often loose and the markers do not track the skeleton well. CTX analysis of a CT scan plus two X-ray movies will produce a highly accurate 3D animation of skeletal elements moving in space. These will be more than stick figures -- the complete 3D morphology of each bone will be present and animated precisely with this technique. Biplane X-ray imaging and CTX analysis will make it possible to study aspects of skeletal kinematics that are largely inaccessible with other techniques, such as long axis rotation of bones, putative bending of fine bones in small animals, and the relative 3D motions of the articular surfaces of joints. CTX will provide more accurate data for input into musculoskeletal models, such as joint angles for inverse dynamics and neural control models. This is an interdisciplinary proposal combining the expertise of two functional morphologists (Brainerd and Gatesy) who have extensive experience with dynamic X-ray imaging of animal movement and a computer scientist (Laidlaw) who specializes in building computational tools for accelerating science, with particular emphasis on scientific visualization tools. Three-dimensional visualization of rapid skeletal motion in vertebrates will be possible with instrumentation to be developed under this award. CTX imaging, made possible with this instrumentation, will open up new areas of research in vertebrate functional morphology, such as the comparative study of 3D joint biomechanics. The animations developed with CTX will be powerful scientific tools, but they will also be accessible and appealing to the general public. These animations will be used to increase appreciation for basic research whenever possible.

Publications Produced as a Result of this Research

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Brainerd, EL; Baier, DB; Gatesy, SM; Hedrick, TL; Metzger, KA; Gilbert, SL; Crisco, JJ "X-Ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM): Precision, Accuracy and Applications in Comparative Biomechanics Research" JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY PART A-ECOLOGICAL GENETICS AND PHYSIOLOGY, v.313A, 2010, p.262. doi:10.1002/jez.58  View record at Web of Science

Gatesy, SM; Baier, DB; Jenkins, FA; Dial, KP "Scientific Rotoscoping: A Morphology-Based Method of 3-D Motion Analysis and Visualization" JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY PART A-ECOLOGICAL GENETICS AND PHYSIOLOGY, v.313A, 2010, p.244. doi:10.1002/jez.58  View record at Web of Science

Brainerd, E.L., Gatesy, S.M., Baier, D.B. and Hedrick, T.L. "Accurate 3D reconstruction of skeletal morphology and movement with CTX imaging" Journal of Morphology, v.263, 2007, p.1053.

Keefe, D.M., T.M. O'Brien, D.B. Baier, S.M. Gatesy, E.L. Brainerd, and D.H. Laidlaw "Exploratory Visualization of Animal Kinematics Using Instantaneous Helical Axes" Computer Graphics Forum, v.27(3), 2008, p.863.

Metzger, K.A., D.B. Baier, A. Lin, C.J. Harper, and S.W. Herring "XROMM analysis of mastication in miniature pigs" Integrative and Comparative Biology, v.49(Supp, 2009, p.e115.

Dawson, M.M., K.A. Metzger, D.B. Baier, and E.L. Brainerd "Kinematics of the quadrate bone during feeding in Mallard ducks" Integrative and Comparative Biology, v.49(Supp, 2009, p.e44.

Gidmark, N.J., K.L. Staab, L.P. Hernandez, and E.L. Brainerd "XROMM analysis of 3D skeletal movement during premaxillary protrusion in common carp" Integrative and Comparative Biology, v.49(Supp, 2009, p.e62.

Publications Produced as Conference Proceedings

Baier, DB;Gatesy, SM;Dial, KP "Forelimb skeletal kinematics of chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) during wing-assisted incline running and ascending flight" Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Integrative-and-Comparative-Biology, v.49, 2009, p.E8 View record at Web of Science

Keefe, DF;Acevedo, D;Miles, J;Drury, F;Swartz, SM;Laidlaw, DH "Scientific sketching for collaborative VR visualization design" 9th Eurographics/IEEE VGTC Symposium on Visualization (EuroVis '07), v.14, 2008, p.835 View record at Web of Science

Keefe, DF;Zeleznik, RC;Laidlaw, DH "Tech-note: Dynamic dragging for input of 3D trajectories" IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, v. , 2008, p.51 View record at Web of Science

Dawson, MM;Metzger, KA;Baier, DB;Brainerd, EL "Kinematics of the Quadrate Bone During Feeding in Mallard Ducks" Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Integrative-and-Comparative-Biology, v.49, 2009, p.E44 View record at Web of Science

Gidmark, NJ;Staab, KL;Hernandez, JP;Brainerd, EL "XROMM analysis of 3D skeletal movement during premaxillary protrusion in common carp" Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Integrative-and-Comparative-Biology, v.49, 2009, p.E62 View record at Web of Science

Metzger, KA;Baier, DB;Harper, CJ;Herring, SW;Brainerd, EL "XROMM analysis of mastication in miniature pigs" Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Integrative-and-Comparative-Biology, v.49, 2009, p.E115 View record at Web of Science

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