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Research Spending & Results

Award Detail

Awardee:MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY, THE
Doing Business As Name:Marine Biological Laboratory
PD/PI:
  • Anne E Giblin
  • (508) 289-7488
  • agiblin@mbl.edu
Co-PD(s)/co-PI(s):
  • Bruce J Peterson
  • Wilfred M Wollheim
  • Joseph J Vallino
  • Charles S Hopkinson Jr.
Award Date:09/16/2010
Estimated Total Award Amount: $ 1,880,000
Funds Obligated to Date: $ 2,213,777
  • FY 2010=$940,000
  • FY 2011=$1,074,233
  • FY 2012=$199,544
Start Date:10/01/2010
End Date:09/30/2013
Transaction Type:Grant
Agency:NSF
Awarding Agency Code:4900
Funding Agency Code:4900
CFDA Number:47.050
Primary Program Source:040100 NSF RESEARCH & RELATED ACTIVIT
Award Title or Description:Plum Island Ecosystems LTER
Federal Award ID Number:1058747
DUNS ID:001933779
Program:LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH

Awardee Location

Street:7 M B L ST
City:WOODS HOLE
State:MA
ZIP:02543-1015
County:Woods Hole
Country:US
Awardee Cong. District:09

Primary Place of Performance

Organization Name:Marine Biological Laboratory
Street:7 M B L ST
City:WOODS HOLE
State:MA
ZIP:02543-1015
County:Woods Hole
Country:US
Cong. District:09

Abstract at Time of Award

Intellectual Merit: The Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) LTER is an integrated research, education and outreach program whose goal is to develop a predictive understanding of the long-term response of watershed and estuarine ecosystems at the land-sea interface to changes in climate, land use, and sea level. The principal study site is the Plum Island Sound estuary located in the Acadian biogeographic province in eastern New England. The study sites include the coupled Parker, Rowley, and Ipswich River watersheds, their tidal marshes, and the surrounding ocean of the Gulf of Maine. Land use change and urbanization of coastal watersheds are altering both the magnitude and timing of the flow of materials and water to coastal ecosystems. These changes in flows from land, coupled with climate change and sea level rise, will have important, but still poorly understood consequences for the ways in which materials and energy are transformed in the coastal zone. It will also have important consequences for the people who value these ecosystems for food, recreation, and storm protection. The overarching question of this project addresses the ecological consequences of global change in the coastal zone: How do external drivers, ecosystem dynamics, and human activities interact to shape organic matter and nutrient transformations in linked watershed and coastal ecosystems? This project follows from prior LTER studies of biogeochemistry, food webs, and population biology in the Plum Island watersheds, estuary, and intertidal marshes. In this next phase of PIE LTER research there will be more emphasis on linkages and feedbacks between the component ecosystems, including the human dimension. LTER Researchers will also place a greater emphasis on the role of geomorphology and geomorphic change in ecosystem dynamics. To organize this research the investigators have divided the study into four programmatic areas, each of which addresses an issue critical to answering our overarching question: Q1 Watersheds - How do human alterations of inter-basin material transfers, within-basin ecosystem connectivity, and geomorphology interact with climate to impact ecosystem regulation of water, organic matter, and nutrient fluxes through the watershed to the estuary, and how do these changes feed back to human behaviors that further alter watershed function? Q2 Marsh - Are the relative elevations of salt marshes at PIE in equilibrium with sea level, and if not, what are the consequences for primary production, biogeochemical cycling, and material exchanges between the marsh and estuary? Q3 Estuary - How do human activities and variations in climate that affect the coupling with watersheds, intertidal marshes, and the ocean shape organic matter and nutrient transformations in estuarine tidal creeks and bays? Q4 Higher Trophic Levels - What are the consequences of changes in ecosystem spatial configuration and dynamics for the structure and transfer of productivity in food webs, and for the function of higher trophic levels in estuarine ecosystems? To address these questions LTER Researchers will use a combination of approaches: 1) the collection of long-term data on key ecosystem drivers and ecosystem responses, 2) short and long-term experiments, 3) comparative ecosystems studies, and 4) modeling. All data collected by the PIE LTER will be centralized and easily accessible to PIE-LTER scientists, local, regional and state partners, and the broader scientific community. Broader Impacts: The educational and outreach program at PIE LTER is greatly strengthened through partnerships with local educators and NGOs. LTER personnel will continue to collaborate with Massachusetts Audubon and the Governor's Academy for the LTER schoolyard program, which has brought hands-on science training to students in grades 5-12. "Salt marsh Science" currently serves more than 1000 students and 50 teachers a year. Over the next six years the LTER plans to expand teacher training, and include a focus on environmental stewardship. Undergraduates will be served by intensive research experiences focusing on individual projects under the mentorship of PIE scientists. Both undergraduate and graduate student involvement will increase with the addition of new PIs. PIE will maintain an active outreach program through collaboration with many local and regional NGOs including the Gulf of Maine Institute, Essex County Greenbelt, the Ipswich River Association, and the Parker Clean Water Association. PIE scientists help bring scientific information into policy by serving as advisors to policy makers at the local, state, and national level, a role that continues to grow.

Publications Produced as a Result of this Research

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Morris, J. T.; "Competition among marsh macrophytes by means of vertical geomorphological displacement" Third International Conference on Invasive Spartina, v., 2010, p.109-115.

Pautzke, S.M.;Mather, M.E.;Finn, J.T.;Deegan, L.A.;Muth, R.M.; "Seasonal use of a New England estuary by foraging contingents of migratory striped bass" Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, v.139, 2010, p.257 - 269.

Helton, A.M.; C.; Meyer, J.L.; Wollheim, W.M.; Peterson, B.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Stanford, J.A.; Arango, C.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dodds, W.K.; Gregory, S.V.; Hall, R.O.; Hamilton, S.K.; Johnson, S.L.; McDowell, W.H., et al. "Thinking outside the channel: Modeling nitrogen cycling in networked river ecosystems" Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, v.9, 2011, p.229-238.

Mather, M.E.;Finn, J.T.;Pautzke, S.M.;Fox, D.;Savoy, T.;Brundage III, H.M.;Deegan, L.A.;Muth, R.M.; "Diversity in destinations, routes and timing of small adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis on their southward autumn migration" Journal of Fish Biology, v.77, 2010, p.2326-2337.

Pellerin, B.A.;Saraceno, J.;Shanley, J.B.;Sebestyn, S.;Aiken, G.R.;Wollheim, W.M.;Bergamaschi, B.A.; "Taking the pulse of snowmelt: In situ sensors reveal season, event and diurnal patterns of nitrate and dissolved organic matter variability in an upland forest stream" Biogeochemistry, v., 2011, p..

Vallino, J.J.; "Ecosystem biogeochemistry considered as a distributed metabolic network ordered by maximum entropy production." Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B, v.365, 2010, p.1417-1427.

Weston, N.B.;Giblin, A.E.;Banta, G.;Hopkinson, C.S.;Tucker, J.; "The effects of varying salinity on ammonium exchange in estuarine sediments of the Parker River, Massachusetts." Estuaries and Coasts, v.33, 2010, p.985-1003.

Pennings, S.;Alber, M.;Alexander, C.;Booth, M.;Burd, A.;Cai, W-J.;Craft, C.;DePratter, C.;Di Iorio, D.;Hopkinson, C.;Joye, S.;Meile, C.;Moore, W.;Silliman, B.;Thompson, V.;Wares, J.; "South Atlantic Tidal Wetlands" Wetland Habitats of North America: Ecology and Conservation Concerns, v., 2012, p.45-61.

Weston, N.B.;Giblin, A.E.;Banta, G.;Hopkinson, C.S.;Tucker, J.; "The effects of varying salinity on ammonium exchange in estuarine sediments of the Parker River, Massachusetts." Estuaries and Coasts, v.33, 2010, p.985-1003.

Kiehn, W.M.;Morris, J.T.; "Variability in dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in Spartina alterniflora and its effect on Littoraria irrorata." ine Ecology Progress Series, v.406, 2010, p.47-55.

Beaulieu, J. J.; Tank, J.L.; Hamilton, S. K.; Wollheim, W.; Hall, R.; Mulholland, P; Peterson, B.; Ashkenas, L.; Cooper, L.; Dahm, C.; Dodds, W.; Grimm, N.; Johnson, S.; McDowell, W.; Poole, G.; Valett, H.; Arango, C.; Bernot, M.; Burgin, A., et al. "Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks" Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, v.108, 2011, p.214-219.

Kirwan, M.L.;Guntenspergen, G.R.;D "Limits on the adaptability of coastal marshes to rising sea level" Geophysical Research Letters, v.37, 2010, p..

Pontius Jr., R. G.;Millones, M.; "Death to Kappa:birth of quantity disagreement and allocation disagreement for accuracy assessment" International Journal of Remote Sensing, v.32, 2011, p.4407-4429.

Bain, D.J., R.L. Hale, W.M. Wollheim "Hotbed of Biogeochemical Diversity - Understanding Urban Ecosystem Dynamics." Elements, v.8, 2012, p.435. doi:410.2113/gselements.2118.2116.2435 

Pontius Jr., R. G.;Petrova, S.; "Assessing a predictive model of land change using uncertain data" Software, v.25, 2010, p.299-309.

Zhao, L.;Chen, C.;Vallino, J.;Hopkinson, C.;Beardsley, R.C.;Lin, H.;Lerczak, J.; "Wetland-estuarine-shelf interactions in the Plum Island Sound and Merrimack River in the Massachusetts coast" Journal of Geophysical Research, v.115, 2010, p.1-13.

Pontius Jr., R.G.;Li, X.; "Land transition estimates from erroneous maps" Journal of Land Use Science, v.5, 2010, p.31-44.

Deegan, L.A., D.S. Johnson, R.S. Warren, B.J. Peterson, J.W. Fleeger, S. Fagherazzi, W.M. Wollheim "Trouble on the Edge: Coastal eutrophication drives salt marsh loss" Nature, v.490, 2013, p.352.

Pontius Jr., R.G.;Neeti, N.; "ference between maps of future land change scenarios" Sustainability Science, v.5, 2010, p.39-50.

Pontius Jr., R. G.;Petrova, S.; "Assessing a predictive model of land change using uncertain data" Software, v.25, 2010, p.299-309.

Zhao, L.;Chen, C.;Vallino, J.;Hopkinson, C.;Beardsley, R.C.;Lin, H.;Lerczak, J.; "Wetland-estuarine-shelf interactions in the Plum Island Sound and Merrimack River in the Massachusetts coast" Journal of Geophysical Research, v.115, 2010, p.1-13.

Bowen, B.C. Crump, L.A. Deegan and J.E. Hobbie "Increased supply of ambient nitrogen has minimal effect on salt marsh bacterial production" Limnology and Oceanography, v.54, 2009, p.713.

Preheim, S.P.;Boucher, Y.;Woldschutte, H.;David, L.A.;Veneziano, D.;Alm, E.J.;Polz, M.F.; "Metapopulation structure of" Environmental Microbiology, v.13, 2011, p.265-275.

Fagherazzi, S.;FitzGerald, D.M.;Fulweiler, R.W.;Hughes, Z.;Wiberg, P.L.;McGlathery, K.J.;Morris, J.T.;Tolhurst, T.J.;Deegan, L.A.;Johnson, D.S.; "Ecogeomorphology of Tidal Flats" Treatise on Geomorphology, v.12, 2012, p..

Raciti, S.;Fahey, T.;Hall, B.;Driscoll, C.;Carranti, F.J.;Foster, D.;Gwyther, P.S.;Jenkins, J.;Hamburg, S.;Neill, C.;Ollinger, S.;Peery, B.W.;Quigley, E.;Sherman, R.;Thomas, R.Q.;Vadeboncoeur, T.M.;Weinstein, D.;Wilson, G.;Woodbury, P.;Yandik, W.; "Local scale carbon budgets and mitigation opportunities for the Northeastern United States." BioScience, v.62, 2012, p.23-38.

Fagherazzi, S.;FitzGerald, D.M.;Fulweiler, R.W.;Hughes, Z.;Wiberg, P.L.;McGlathery, K.J.;Morris, J.T.;Tolhurst, T.J.;Deegan, L.A.;Johnson, D.S.; "Ecogeomorphology of Salt Marshes" Treatise on Geomorphology, v.12, 2012, p..

Chen, H.;Pontius Jr., R.G.; "Sensitivity of a land change model to pixel resolution and precision of the independent variable" Assessment, v.16, 2011, p.37-52.

Beaulieu, J.J.; Tank, J.L.; Hamilton, S.K.; Wollheim, W.M.; Hall, R.O.; Mulholland, P.J.; Peterson, B.J.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, C.N.; Dodds, W.K.; Grimm, N.B.; Johnson, S.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Poole, G.C.; Valett, H.M.; Arango, C.P., et al. "Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks" Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, v.108, 2011, p.214-219.

Smith, J.M.;Mather, M.E.; "uation of commonly available statistical tools" Ecological Indicators, v.13, 2011, p.253-262.

Briggs, M.A.;Gooseff, M.N.;Peterson, B.J.;Morkeski, K,;Wollheim, W.M.;Hopkinson, C.S.; "Surface and hyporheic transient storage dynamics throughout a coastal stream network." Water Resources Research, v.46, 2010, p..

Pellerin, B.A.;Saraceno, J.;Shanley, J.B.;Sebestyn, S.;Aiken, G.R.;Wollheim, W.M.;Bergamaschi, B.A.; "Taking the pulse of snowmelt: In situ sensors reveal season, event and diurnal patterns of nitrate and dissolved organic matter variability in an upland forest stream" Biogeochemistry, v., 2011, p..

Chen, H.;Pontius Jr., R.G.; "Sensitivity of a land change model to pixel resolution and precision of the independent variable" Assessment, v.16, 2011, p.37-52.

Millette, T.L.;Argow, B.;Marcano, E.;Hayward, C.;Hopkinson, C.;Valentine, V.; "Salt marsh geomorphological analyses via integration of multi-temporal multispectral remote sensing with LIDAR and GIS." Journal of Coastal Research, v.26, 2010, p.809-816.

Bain, D., M. B. Green, J. Campbell, J. Chamblee, J. Fraterrigo, S. S. Kaushal, S. Martin, T. Jordan, A. Parolari, W. V. Sobczak, D. E. Weller, W. M. Wollheim, E. Boose, J. Duncan, G. Gettel, B. Hall, P. Kumar, J. Thompson, J. Vose, E. Elliott, and D. Leig "Legacies in material flux: structural catchment changes pre-date long-term studies." BioScience, v.62, 2012, p.575.

Vieillard, A.M. and R.W. Fulweiler "Impacts of long-term fertilization on salt marsh tidal creek benthic nutrient and N2 gas fluxes." Marine Ecology Progress Series, v.471, 2012, p.11.

Chen, H.;Pontius Jr., R.G.; "Diagnostic tools to evaluate a spatial land change projection along a gradient of an explanatory variable" Landscape Ecology, v.25, 2010, p.1319-1331.

Kirwan, M.L.;Guntenspergen, G.R.;D "Limits on the adaptability of coastal marshes to rising sea level" Geophysical Research Letters, v.37, 2010, p..

Howarth, R.W.;Anderson, D.;Cloern, J.;Elfring, C.;Hopkinson, C.;Lapointe, B.;Malone, T.;Marcus, N.;McGlathery, K.;Sharpley, A.;Walker, D.; "Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays and seas." Issues in Ecology, v., 2000, p.1-15.

Giblin, A.E.;Weston, N.B.;Banta, G.T.;Tucker, J.;Hopkinson, C.S.; "The effects of salinity on nitrogen losses from an oligohaline estuarine sediment" Estuaries and Coasts, v.33, 2010, p.1054-1068.

McConnell, W.J.; Millington, J.D.A.; Reo, N.J.; Alberti, M.; Asbjornsen, H.; Baker, L.A.; Brozovi; Drinkwater, L.E.; Drzyzga, S.A.; Fragoso, J.; Holland, D.S.; Jantz, C.A.; Kohler, T.A. ; Maschner, H.D.G.; Monticino, M.; Podestá, G.; Redman, C.L., et al. "Research on coupled human and natural Systems (CHANS): Approach, challenges and strategies" Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, v.92, 2011, p.218-228.

Huang, X.;Morris, J.T.; "Distribution of phosphatase activity in marsh sediments along an estuarine salinity gradient." Marine Ecological Progress Series, v.292, 2005, p.75-83.

Huffaker, D.;Pontius Jr., R.G.; "Reconstruction of Historical Land Cover in the Ipswich Watershed." Biological Bulletin, v.203, 2002, p.253-254.

Chowdhury, R.;Larson, K.;Grove, M.;Polsky, C.;Cook, E.;Onsted, J.;Ogden, L; "A Multi-Scalar Approach to Theorizing Socio-Ecological Dynamics of Urban Residential Landscapes" Cities and the Environment, v.4, 2011, p..

Mather, M. E., J. T. Finn, C. G. Kennedy. L. A. Deegan, J. M. Smith "What happens in an estuary doesn?t stay there: patterns of biotic connectivity resulting from long term ecological research." Oceanographjy, v., 2013, p..

Stewart, R.J.;Wollheim, W.M.;Gooseff, M.;Briggs, M.A.;Jacobs, J.M.;Peterson, B.J.;Hopkinson, C.S.; "Separation of river network scale nitrogen removal among main channel and two transient storage compartments" Water Resources Research, v.47, 2011, p..

Hughes, J. E.;Deegan, L.A.;Peterson, B.J.;Holmes, R.M.;Fry, B.; "Nitrogen flow through the food web in the oligohaline zone of a New England estuary." Ecology, v.81, 2000, p.433-452.

Helton, A.M.; Poole, G.C.; Meyer, J.L.; Wollheim, W.M.; Peterson, B.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Stanford, J.A.; Arango, C.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dodds, W.K.; Gregory, S.V.; Hall, R.O.; Hamilton, S.K.; Johnson, S.L.; ; , et al. "Thinking outside the channel: Modeling nitrogen cycling in networked river ecosystems" Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, v.9, 2011, p.229-238.

Mudd, S.M.;D "How does vegetation affect sedimentation on tidal marshes? Investigating particle capture and hydrodynamic controls on biologically mediated sedimentation" Journal of Geophysical Research, v.115, 2010, p..

J.L.;Crump, B.C.;Deegan, L.A.;Hobbie, J.E.; "Increased supply of ambient nitrogen has minimal effect on salt marsh bacterial production" Limnology and Oceanography, v.54, 2009, p.713 - 722.

Ferry, K.H.;Mather, M.E.; "triped bass feeding in Massachusetts estuaries: trends across scales." Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science, v.4, 2012, p.30-45.

Johnson, D.S.; "High-marsh invertebrates are susceptible to eutrophication" Marine Ecological Progress Series, v.438, 2011, p.142-152.

Bernhard, A.;Landry, Z.C.;A.;de al Torre, J.R.;Giblin, A.E.;Stahl, D.A.; "Abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria along an estuarine salinity gradient in relationship to potential nitrification rates." Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v.76, 2010, p.1285-1289.

Vallino, J.J.; "Differences and implications in biogeochemistry from maximizing entropy production locally versus globally" Earth System Dynamics, v.2, 2011, p.69-85.

Vallino, J.J.; "Ecosystem biogeochemistry considered as a distributed metabolic network ordered by maximum entropy production." Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B, v.365, 2010, p.1417-1427.

Vieillard, A.,;R.W. Fulweiler, R.W.;Hughes, Z.;Carey, J.; "The ebb and flood of silica: Quantifying dissolved and biogenic silica fluxes from a temperate salt marsh" Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v.95, 2011, p.415-423.

von Trapp, K.; "Drivers of Residential Lawn Care in Suburban Massachusetts: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Four Massachusetts Towns" Urban and Environmental Planning, v., 2010, p..

Johnson, D.S.;Fleeger, J.W.; "Weak response of saltmarsh infauna to ecosystem-wide nutrient enrichment and fish predator reduction: A four-year study" Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, v.373, 2009, p.35-44.

Bowen, J.L.;Ward, B.B.;Morrison, H.G.;Hobbie, J.E.;Valiela, I.;Deegan, L.A.;Sogin, M.L.; "Microbial community composition in salt marsh sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment" The ISME Journal, v., 2011, p.1-9.

Johnson, D.S.;Fleeger, J.W.;Deegan, L.A.; "Large-scale manipulations reveal that top-down and bottom-up controls interact to alter habitat utilization by saltmarsh fauna" Marine Ecology Progress Series, v.377, 2009, p.33-41.

Frank, H.F.;Mather, M.E.;Smith, J.M.;Muth, R.M.;Finn, J.T.; "Role of origin and release location in pre-spawning movements of anadromous alewives" Fisheries Management and Ecology, v.18, 2011, p.12-14.

Johnson, D.S.;Fleeger, J.W.;Galvan, K.A.;Moser, E.B.; "Worm holes and their space-time continuum: Spatial and temporal variability of macroinfaunal annelids in a northern New England salt marsh" Estuaries and Coasts, v.30, 2007, p.226-237.

Weston, N.B.;Giblin, A.E.;Banta, G.;Hopkinson, C.S.;Tucker, J.; "The effects of varying salinity on ammonium exchange in estuarine sediments of the Parker River, Massachusetts." Estuaries and Coasts, v.33, 2010, p.985-1003.

Briggs, M.A.;Gooseff, M.N.;Peterson, B.J.;Morkeski, K,;Wollheim, W.M.;Hopkinson, C.S.; "Surface and hyporheic transient storage dynamics throughout a coastal stream network." Water Resources Research, v.46, 2010, p..

Mudd, S.M.;D "How does vegetation affect sedimentation on tidal marshes? Investigating particle capture and hydrodynamic controls on biologically mediated sedimentation" Journal of Geophysical Research, v.115, 2010, p..

Giner, N., C. Polsky, R.G. Pontius, and D. Runfola "Understanding the Determinants of Lawn Landscapes: A High-Resolution Spatial Statistical Analysis in Suburban Boston, Massachusetts" Landscape and Urban Planning, v., 2013, p.. doi:DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.12.006 

Johnson, D.S.;Jessen, B.J.; "spur-throated grasshoppers," Estuaries and Coasts, v.31, 2008, p.912-919.

Johnston, M. E.;Cavatorta, J.R.;Hopkinson, C.S.;Valentine, V.; "Importance of metabolism in the development of salt marsh ponds." Biological Bulletin, v.205, 2003, p.248-249.

McConnell, W.J.; Millington, J.D.A.; Reo, N.J.; Alberti, M.; Asbjornsen, H.; Baker, L.A.; Brozovi; Drinkwater, L.E.; Drzyzga, S.A.; Fragoso, J.; Holland, D.S.; Jantz, C.A.; Kohler, T.A. ; Maschner, H.D.G.; Monticino, M.; Podestá, G.; Redman, C.L., et al. "Research on coupled human and natural Systems (CHANS): Approach, challenges and strategies" Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, v.92, 2011, p.218-228.

Chen, H.;Pontius Jr., R.G.; "Diagnostic tools to evaluate a spatial land change projection along a gradient of an explanatory variable" Landscape Ecology, v.25, 2010, p.1319-1331.

Kerry, J.;Boorse, D.;Buchsbaum, R.; "The effect of nutrient enrichment and salinity on salt marsh invertebrates in the Plum Island Estuary." Biological Bulletin, v.207, 2004, p.174.

Giblin, A.E.;Weston, N.B.;Banta, G.T.;Tucker, J.;Hopkinson, C.S.; "The effects of salinity on nitrogen losses from an oligohaline estuarine sediment" Estuaries and Coasts, v.33, 2010, p.1054-1068.

Kiehn, W.M.;Morris, J.T.; "Variability in dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in Spartina alterniflora and its effect on Littoraria irrorata." Marine Ecology Progress Series, v.406, 2010, p.47-55.

Pontius Jr., R.G.;Neeti, N.; "Uncertainty in the difference between maps of future land change scenarios" Sustainability Science, v.5, 2010, p.39-50.

Rosenblatt, A., M. R. Heithaus, M. E. Mather, P. Matich, J. C. Nifong, W. J. Ripple, B. R. Silliman "The roles of large top predators in coastal ecosystems: new insights from Long-Term Ecological Research" Oceanography, v., 2013, p..

Kiehn, W.M;Morris, J.T.; "Relationships between smooth cord-grass Spartina alterniflora (Loisel.) and the periwinkle snail Littorina irrorata (Say) in a South Carolina salt marsh" Wetlands, v.29, 2009, p.818-825.

Pascal, P.-Y. and J. W. Fleeger "Diverse dietary responses by saltmarsh consumers to chronic nutrient enrichment" Estuaries and Coasts, v., 2013, p..

Zhao, L.;Chen, C.;Vallino, J.;Hopkinson, C.;Beardsley, R.C.;Lin, H.;Lerczak, J.; "Wetland-estuarine-shelf interactions in the Plum Island Sound and Merrimack River in the Massachusetts coast" Journal of Geophysical Research, v.115, 2010, p.1-13.

Kirkby, R.;Claessens, L.;Hopkinson, Jr., C.;Rastetter, E.;Vallino, J.; "Modeling the effects of land-use change on nitrogen biogeochemistry in the Ipswich watershed, Massachusetts" Biological Bulletin, v.199, 2000, p.218-219.

Acinas, S.G.;Klepac-Ceraj, K.;Hunt, D.E.;Pharino, C.;Ceraj, C.;Distel, D.L.;Polz, M.F.; "Fine-scale phylogenetic architecture of a complex bacterial community." Nature, v.430, 2004, p.551-554.

Agnew, A.M.;Shull, D.H.;Buchsbaum, R.N.; "Growth of a salt marsh invertebrate on several species of marsh grass detritus." Biological Bulletin, v.205, 2003, p.238-239.

Kirwan, M.L.;Guntenspergen, G.R.;D "Limits on the adaptability of coastal marshes to rising sea level" Geophysical Research Letters, v.37, 2010, p..

Alexander, R.B.;Bohlke, J.F.;Boyer, E.W.;David, M.;Harvey, J.W.;Mulholland, P.J.;Seitzinger, S.P.;Tobias, C.R.;Tonitto, C.;Wollheim, W.M.; "Dynamic modeling of nitrogen losses in river networks unravels the coupled effects of hydrological and biogeochemical processes" Biogeochemistry, v.93, 2009, p.91-116.

Bahr, M.;Crump, B.C.;Klepac-Ceraj, V.;Teske, A.P.;Sogin, M.L.;Hobbie, J.E.; "Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in a New England salt marsh." biology, v.7, 2005, p.1175-1185.

Pontius Jr., R.G.;Li, X.; "Land transition estimates from erroneous maps" Journal of Land Use Science, v.5, 2010, p.31-44.

Bain, D.; Green, M.B.; Campbell, J.; Chamblee, J.; Fraterrigo, J.; Kaushal, S.S.; Martin, S.; Jordan, T.; Parolari, A.; Sobczak, W.V.; Weller, D.E.; Wollheim, W.M.; Boose, E.; Duncan, J.; Gettel, G.; Hall, B.; Kumar, P.; Thompson, J.; Vose, J., et al. "Legacy effects material flux: structural catchment changes predate long-term studies." Bioscience, v.62, 2012, p.575-584.

Kirwan, M.L.;Guntenspergen, G.R.;Morris, J.T.; "Latitudinal trends in Spartina alterniflora productivity and the response of coastal marshes to global change" Global Change Biology, v., 2009, p..

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Pellerin, B.A.;Saraceno, J.;Shanley, J.B.;Sebestyn, S.;Aiken, G.R.;Wollheim, W.M.;Bergamaschi, B.A.; "Taking the pulse of snowmelt: In situ sensors reveal season, event and diurnal patterns of nitrate and dissolved organic matter variability in an upland forest stream" Biogeochemistry, v., 2011, p..

Pellerin, B.A.;Wollheim, W.;Hopkinson, C.;McDowell, W.;Williams, M.;Vorosmarty, C.;Daley, M.; "Role of wetlands and developed land use on dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations and DON / TDN in northeastern U.S. rivers and streams" Limnology and Oceanography, v.49, 2004, p.910-918.

Pellerin, B.A.;Wollheim, W.M.;Feng, X.;Vorosmarty, C.J.; "The application of electrical conductivity as a tracer for hydrograph separation in urban catchments." Hydrological Processes, v.22, 2007, p.1810-1818.

Pennings, S.;Alber, M.;Alexander, C.;Booth, M.;Burd, A.;Cai, W-J.;Craft, C.;DePratter, C.;Di Iorio, D.;Hopkinson, C.;Joye, S.;Meile, C.;Moore, W.;Silliman, B.;Thompson, V.;Wares, J.; "South Atlantic Tidal Wetlands" Wetland Habitats of North America: Ecology and Conservation Concerns, v., 2012, p.45-61.

Perring, A.;Williams, M.;Hopkinson Jr., C.;Rastetter, E.;Vallino, J.; "Solute dynamics in storm flow of the Ipswich River Basin: Effects of land use." Biological Bulletin, v.199, 2000, p.219-221.

Peterson, B. J.; "Stable isotopes as tracers of organic matter input and transfer in benthic food webs: A review." Acta Oecologia, v.20, 1999, p.479-487.

Polsky, C.;Assefa, S.;Del Vecchio, K.;Hill, T.;Merner, L.;Tercero, I.;Pontius, G; "The Mounting Risk of Drought in a Humid Landscape: Structure and Agency in Suburbanizing Massachusetts." Sustainable Communities on a Sustainable Planet: The Human-Environment Regional Observatory Project, v., 2009, p..

Poltz, M.F.;Bertilsson, S.;Acinas, S.G.;Hunt, D.; "A (r)Ray of hope in analysis of function and diversity of microbial communities" Biological Bulletin, v.204, 2003, p.196-199.

Pontius Jr., R. G.; "Quantification error versus location error in comparison of categorical maps" Remote Sensing, v.66, 2000, p.1011-1016.

Pontius Jr., R. G.;Agrawal, A.;Huffaker, D.; "Estimating the uncertainty of land-cover extrapolations while constructing a raster map from tabular data." Journal of Gegraphical Systems, v.5, 2003, p.253-273.

Pontius Jr., R. G.;Fedorko, E.; "Spatial distribution of land type in regression models of pollutant loading." Conference Proceedings of the meeting of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, v., 2005, p.5.

Pontius Jr., R. G.;Millones, M.; "Death to Kappa:birth of quantity disagreement and allocation disagreement for accuracy assessment" International Journal of Remote Sensing, v.32, 2011, p.4407-4429.

Pontius Jr., R. G.;Petrova, S.; "Assessing a predictive model of land change using uncertain data" Software, v.25, 2010, p.299-309.

Pontius Jr., R. G.;Schneider, L.; "Land-use change model validation by a ROC method for the Ipswich watershed, Massachusetts, USA" Environment, v.85, 2001, p.239-248.

Pontius Jr., R.G.;Agrawal, A.;Huffaker, D.; "Uncertainty Analysis in Land Change Modeling: Constucting a Gridded Map from Tabular Data." Conference Proceedings, The Second International Conference on Geographic Information Science, v., 2002, p.141-142.

Pontius Jr., R.G.;Claessens, L.;Hopkinson, C.;Marzouk, A.;Rastetter, E.B.;Schneider, L.C.;Vallino, J.; "Scenarios of land-use change and nitrogen release in the Ipswich watershed, Massachusetts, USA" hic Information Systems and Environmental Modeling: Problems, prospects, and Needs for Research, v., 2000, p..

Pontius Jr., R.G.;Connors, J.; "Expanding the conceptual, mathematical, and practical methods for map comparison" Conference proceedings of the meeting of Spatial Accuracy 2006, v., 2006, p.16.

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Raymond, P. A.;Cole, J.J.; "Gas exchange in rivers and estuaries: Choosing a gas transfer velocity." Estuaries, v.24, 2001, p.312-217.

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Raymond, P.A.;Bauer, J.E.; "Bacterial utilization and transport of DOC in a temperate estuary: Implications for export to the coastal ocean." Aquatic Microbial Ecology, v.22, 2000, p.1-12.

Raymond, P.A.;Bauer, J.E.;Caraco, N.F.;Cole, J.J.;Longworth, B.;Petsch, S.T.; "Controls on the variability of organic matter and dissolved inorganic carbon age in northeast U.S. rivers." Marine Chemistry, v.92, 2004, p.353-366.

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Schmitt, C.;Weston, N.B.;Hopkinson, C.; "A preliminary evaluation of sedimentation rates and species distribution in Plum Island estuary, Massachusetts" Biological Bulletin, v.195, 1998, p.232-233.

Schneider, L.;Pontius Jr., R.G.; "Modeling land-use change in the Ipswich watershed, Massachusetts, USA" Environment, v.85, 2001, p.83-94.

Sheldon, S.P.;Twichell, S.;Deegan, L.A.; "The effects of long term nutrient addition on a salt marsh community." New England Estuarine Research Society (NEERS), March 7-9, 2004, v., 2004, p..

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Smith, J.M.;Mather, M.E.; "uation of commonly available statistical tools" Ecological Indicators, v.13, 2011, p.253-262.

Smith, J.S.;Mather, M.E.;Frank, H.J.;Muth, R.M.;Finn, J.T.;McCormick, S.D.; "Evaluation of a gastric radio tag insertion technique for anadromous river herring." North American Journal of Fisheries Management, v.29, 2009, p.367-377.

Sorrensen, C.;Polsky, C.;Neff, R.; "TThe HERO REU Experience: Undergraduate Research on Vulnerability to Climate Change in Local Places." Geographical Bulletin, v.47, 2005, p.65-72.

Stewart, R.J.;Wollheim, W.M.;Gooseff, M.;Briggs, M.A.;Jacobs, J.M.;Peterson, B.J.;Hopkinson, C.S.; "Separation of river network scale nitrogen removal among main channel and two transient storage compartments" Water Resources Research, v.47, 2011, p..

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Sundareshwar, P.V.;Morris, J.T.;Pellechia, P.J.;Cohen, H.J.;Porter, D.E.;Jones, B.C.; "Occurrence and Ecological Implications of Pyrophosphate in Estuaries" Limnology and Oceanography, v.46, 2001, p.1570-1577.

Sweeney, J.;Deegan, L.;Garritt, R.; "Population size and site fidelity of" Biological Bulletin, v.195, 1998, p.238-239.

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Thouin, J.A.;Wollheim, W.M.;Vorosmarty, C.J.;Jacobs, J.;McDowell, W.H.; "The biogeochemical influences of nitrate, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved organic carbon on stream nitrate uptake." Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.28, 2009, p.894-907.

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Tobias, C.R.;Cieri, M.;Peterson, B.J.;Deegan, L.A.;Vallino, J.;Hughes, J.; "Processing watershed-derived nitrogen in a well-flushed New England estuary." Limnology and Oceanography, v.48, 2003, p.1766-1778.

Torres, R.;Fagherazzi, S.;van Proosdij, D.;Hopkinson, C.; "Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform" Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v.69, 2006, p.309-310.

Vallino, J. J.;Hopkinson, C.S.; "Estimation of dispersion and characteristic mixing times in Plum Island Sound Estuary" Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v.46, 1998, p.333-350.

Vallino, J.; "Improving marine ecosystem models: Use of data assimilation and mesocosm experiments." Journal of Marine Research, v.58, 2000, p.117-164.

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Vallino, J.;Hopkinson, C.S.;Garritt, R.;Tucker, J.; "A non-linear inverse technique to estimate estuarine ecosystem metabolism from whole system oxygen measurements." Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Ecohydraulics, v., 1999, p..

Vallino, J.;Hopkinson, C.S.;Garritt, R.H.; "Estimating estuarine gross production, community respiration and net ecosystem production: A nonlinear inverse technique." Ecological Modeling, v.187, 2005, p.281-296.

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Vallino, J.J.; "Modeling microbial consortiums as distributed metabolic networks" Biological Bulletin, v.204, 2003, p.174-179.

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Project Outcomes Report

Disclaimer

This Project Outcomes Report for the General Public is displayed verbatim as submitted by the Principal Investigator (PI) for this award. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this Report are those of the PI and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation; NSF has not approved or endorsed its content.

The Plum Island Ecosystems LTER

Scientific Merit: The Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) LTER is an integrated research, education and outreach program whose goal is to understand the long-term response of watershed and estuarine ecosystems to changes in three key drivers: climate, sea level and human activities.  The PIE-LTER was established in 1998.  Our principal study site is the Plum Island Sound estuary and its watersheds located in eastern Massachusetts north of Boston.  Some key findings are:

 

1)      Suburbanization has altered the timing and magnitude of water flows in PIE watersheds through pumping of groundwater, through water transfers, by storm water management, and by increasing impervious surfaces. By the early 2000s, the average net diversion of water reached 20% of annual river runoff.  However, the impact of this large diversion is not evident in stream flows because there was an increase in water inputs from precipitation and an increase in runoff due to an increase in impervious surfaces.  The result is that average annual runoff has not changed at the whole watershed scale although variability has increased. 

2)      Recently, beaver populations have dramatically increased in PIE watersheds, greatly altering stream channels.  We found that beaver dams resulted in increased native fish biodiversity and may be increasing the rate at which nitrogen is removed.   

3)      We have developed a circulation model of water flow in PIE. The model has yielded new insights on the importance of hydrologic connections between Plum Island Sound and the Merrimack River. 

4)      The majority of nitrogen entering watersheds at PIE come from food/waste and fertilizer.  Although N inputs are relatively high, our watersheds export a lower percentage of N inputs than other urbanized watersheds in the northeastern United States and more closely resemble the highly retentive watersheds in the southeast.  We believe this is partially due to the location of development in our watershed.  The most urbanized areas are located near headwaters which allow abundant riparian and floodplain wetlands downstream to remove more nitrogen than in watersheds where urbanization is closer to the coast.  Suburbanization, however, does cause a decline in N retention.

5)      Nitrogen removal within marshes and estuaries is an important ecosystem service but rates are quite variable in time and space.  In the subtidal areas of PIE, we find that estuarine N dynamics are strongly controlled by water residence time, salinity, and N inputs. 

6)       We have found that marshes have "tipping points" beyond which they cannot keep up with sea-level rise.  Salt marsh primary production is strongly tied to changes in sea level.  When marshes are perched high in the tidal frame, as they are at PIE, the relative marsh elevation is above the optimum for marsh grass growth.  Consequently, in years when sea level is anomalously high, primary production responds positively.  Sea level also varies over an 18.6 year period (lunar nodal cycle) which changes the amplitude of the tides by about 5 cm.  Our research has shown that this change in the flooding duration is sufficient to alter biogeochemistry and primary production in marshes. 

7)      Creek configuration, bottom type and currents within the estuary create ‘hot spots’ where prey accumulate.  These hot spots are used by striped bass to maximize their feeding.

8)      We have developed new methods to analyze maps to gain ...

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