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Research Spending & Results

Award Detail

Awardee:RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY
Doing Business As Name:Rutgers University New Brunswick
PD/PI:
  • Rajiv Malhotra
  • (848) 445-5058
  • rajiv.malhotra@rutgers.edu
Award Date:12/05/2017
Estimated Total Award Amount: $ 139,386
Funds Obligated to Date: $ 139,386
  • FY 2015=$139,386
Start Date:09/01/2017
End Date:07/31/2019
Transaction Type:Grant
Agency:NSF
Awarding Agency Code:4900
Funding Agency Code:4900
CFDA Number:47.041
Primary Program Source:040100 NSF RESEARCH & RELATED ACTIVIT
Award Title or Description:Additive Manufacturing of Conformal Solar Cells via Xenon-Light-Assisted Sintering
Federal Award ID Number:1809289
DUNS ID:001912864
Parent DUNS ID:001912864
Program:Manufacturing Machines & Equip
Program Officer:
  • Steven R. Schmid
  • (703) 292-8611
  • sschmid@nsf.gov

Awardee Location

Street:33 Knightsbridge Road
City:Piscataway
State:NJ
ZIP:08854-3925
County:Piscataway
Country:US
Awardee Cong. District:06

Primary Place of Performance

Organization Name:Rutgers University New Brunswick
Street:33 Knightsbridge Road
City:Piscataway
State:NJ
ZIP:08854-3925
County:Piscataway
Country:US
Cong. District:06

Abstract at Time of Award

Solar cells that conform to the shape of a three-dimensional object are desirable as a renewable energy source for self-sustaining devices (e.g., smart windows in buildings, and sensors for monitoring structural integrity in automobiles and airplanes). The conventional route for manufacturing conformal solar cells is to fabricate their functional layers onto a flexible intermediary polymer sheet, and attach the sheet onto the desired three-dimensional object. During attachment, the sheet is deformed so that it conforms to the object's three-dimensional shape. This deformation of the sheet frequently causes cracking of the cell's functional layers and a loss in the cell's functionality. This award supports scientific investigations on a new additive manufacturing process for fabricating conformal solar cells onto a three-dimensional object, without using any intermediary polymer sheet. Results from this research will enable wider use of solar cells as a renewable energy source for self-sustaining devices in energy, communications, aerospace, and automotive industries. This project aims to develop the new additive manufacturing process for conformal solar cells by integrating inkjet deposition and xenon-light-assisted nanoparticle sintering. The research objective is to understand the interaction between physio-chemical mechanisms (i.e., optically induced nanoparticle heating, temperature rise induced mass transport between nanoparticles, and mass transport induced chemical reactions) that underlie the relationship between nanoparticle characteristics (size and stoichiometry) and sintered material properties (density and chemical composition). A physics-based model will be developed by coupling optical heating of nanoparticles (via electromagnetic Finite Element Analysis), nanoscale mass transfer and reaction kinetics (using analytical models), and mesoscale evolution of temperature and stress (via mesoscale Finite Element Analysis of sintering). Certain model parameters (e.g., nanoparticle size distribution and melting points) will be calibrated by measuring nanoparticle characteristics using calorimetry, spectrophotometry, and spectroscopy. To validate the model, nanoparticles with varying characteristics will be sintered using the new process, and sintered material properties (measured using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared imaging) will be compared to model predictions. This validated model will be used to predict the effects of nanoparticle characteristics on sintered material properties, and on key indicators of physio-chemical mechanisms during the process (e.g., rate of temperature rise of deposited nanoparticles, shrinkage and stresses in deposited nanoparticles, and ratio of unreacted material to material with changed phase in deposited nanoparticles).

Publications Produced as a Result of this Research

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Michael Dexter, Zhongwei Gao "Temperature, Crystalline Phase and Influence of Substrate Properties in Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticle Thin Films" Scientific reports, v., 2018, p.. doi:s41598-018-20621-9 Citation details  

Mirkoohi, Elham "EFFECT OF PARTICLE SHAPE ON NECK GROWTH AND SHRINKAGE OF NANOPARTICLES" 2017 Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, v., 2017, p.. Citation details  

Bansal, S. and Gao, Z. and Chang, C-H and Malhotra, R. "RAPID INTENSE PULSE LIGHT SINTERING OF COPPER SULPHIDE NANOPARTICLE FILMS" 2017 12th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference MSEC2017, v., 2017, p.. Citation details  

Bhandari, Roshan and Bansal, Shalu and Dexter, Michael and Malhotra, Rajiv "A Hybrid Desktop Process for Integrated Deposition and Low-cost, In-situ Sintering of Conductive Silver Nanoparticles" World Congress on Micro and Nano Manufacturing, v., 2017, p.. Citation details  

Kim, Ki-Joong and Pan, Changqing and Bansal, Shalu and Malhotra, Rajiv and Kim, Dae-Hwan and Chang, Chih-Hung "Scalably synthesized environmentally benign, aqueous-based binary nanoparticle inks for Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 photovoltaic cells achieving over 9% efficiency" Sustainable Energy & Fuels, v.1, 2017, p.. doi:10.1039/C6SE00035E Citation details  

Dexter, M. and Bhandari, R. and Chang, C-H. and Malhotra, R. "Controlling processing temperatures and self-limiting behaviour in intense pulsed sintering by tailoring nanomaterial shape distribution" RSC Advances, v.7, 2017, p.. doi:10.1039/C7RA11013H Citation details  

Bansal, S and Malhotra, R "Nanoscale-shape-mediated coupling between temperature and densification in intense pulsed light sintering" Nanotechnology, v.27, 2016, p.. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/27/49/495602 Citation details  

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