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Award Detail

Awardee:UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO
Doing Business As Name:University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras
PD/PI:
  • Nicholas V Brokaw
  • (787) 764-0000
  • nvbrokaw@ites.upr.edu
Co-PD(s)/co-PI(s):
  • Ariel E Lugo
Award Date:01/17/2007
Estimated Total Award Amount: $ 4,920,000
Funds Obligated to Date: $ 5,535,663
  • FY 2011=$923,150
  • FY 2008=$914,000
  • FY 2010=$933,879
  • FY 2012=$959,999
  • FY 2007=$894,000
  • FY 2009=$910,635
Start Date:12/01/2006
End Date:11/30/2015
Transaction Type:Grant
Agency:NSF
Awarding Agency Code:4900
Funding Agency Code:4900
CFDA Number:47.074
Primary Program Source:040100 NSF RESEARCH & RELATED ACTIVIT
Award Title or Description:Luquillo LTER Program 4: Understanding Change in the Ecosystems of Northeastern Puerto Rico
Federal Award ID Number:0620910
DUNS ID:143960193
Parent DUNS ID:090051616
Program:LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH

Awardee Location

Street:18 Ave. Universidad, Ste.1801
City:San Juan
State:PR
ZIP:00925-2512
County:San Juan
Country:US
Awardee Cong. District:00

Primary Place of Performance

Organization Name:University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras
Street:18 Ave. Universidad, Ste.1801
City:San Juan
State:PR
ZIP:00925-2512
County:San Juan
Country:US
Cong. District:00

Abstract at Time of Award

The Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research Program (LUQ) focuses on understanding factors driving long-term change in tropical forest ecosystems in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Building on an earlier emphasis on natural disturbances (hurricanes, landslides, droughts, floods) and ecosystem responses, LUQ will continue studies of ecosystem structure and processes in mid-elevation tabonuco forest, extend research into other forest types along an elevation gradient, and begin investigations of regional-scale processes affecting the Luquillo Mountains. Four approaches will be used: long-term experiments and measurements, comparative analyses among different forest communities, gradient analysis from forest to urban, and synthesis using conceptual and simulation models. Mounting evidence suggests that increasing hurricane intensity, declining rainfall in the mountains, and rising temperature in lowland urbanized areas can significantly affect the ecosystems of the Luquillo Mountains. In this context, the overarching question is: How do changes in disturbance regime and climate alter biogeochemical cycles, biotic structure, and ecosystem services? This leads to three specific questions addressing key elements of the LUQ conceptual framework: 1) What controls variation in carbon and nutrient fluxes, and how are these variations modified by disturbance? Many processes in the Luquillo Mountains exhibit well defined seasonality and links to climate. Understanding these relationships is essential for determining the sensitivity of biota and biogeochemical cycling to environmental change. 2) Are changes in temperature, rainfall, light and wind (climate) along the Luquillo elevation gradient sufficient to explain variation in biogeochemical processes and biotic structure? LUQ proposes to study linear and non-linear trends in climate with elevation in the Luquillo Mountains as drivers of ecosystem processes and the distribution of organisms. By improving understanding of the importance of biotic and abiotic factors in determining the distribution of organisms over spatial gradients in tropical mountains, scientists will increase their ability to understand the effects of change. 3) How important are changes in land-use in determining long-term ecosystem biogeochemistry, biotic structure, and services? Land-use and land-cover are changing dramatically in northeastern Puerto Rico in response to socioeconomic changes. LUQ proposes to examine the long-term effects of land-use and land-cover change on a range of features, including regional and local climate, tree species composition, stream ecology, and a key ecosystem service: the delivery of clean water for humans. The proposed research will provide an improved scientific framework for the management of tropical ecosystems and ecosystem services. It will do so both through conceptual advances and documentation of human disturbance and ecosystem response. The project will continue to produce a cadre of young and minority scientists who are versed in linking population and ecosystem approaches to evaluating environmental change, and will provide them with skills that can be applied in tropical regions or elsewhere. LUQ has developed a comprehensive education program involving teachers at a network of six high schools and a web-based middle school curriculum for teaching ecology. Additional outreach activities are directed at improving the general public's appreciation of the water resources provided to surrounding towns by streams draining the Luquillo Mountains.

Publications Produced as a Result of this Research

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Robert M. Rauber, Bjorn Stevens, Harry T. Ochs III, Charles Knight, B. A. Albrecht, A.M. Blyth, C.W. Fairall J. B. Jensen, S. G. Lasher-Trapp, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, G. Vali, J. R. Anderson, B. A. Baker, A. R. Bandy, F. Burnet, J-L. Brenguier, W. A. Brewer, "Rain in (Shallow) Cumulus over the Ocean?The RICO Campaign" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v.88, 2007, p.1912.

Robert M. Rauber, Bjorn Stevens, Harry T. Ochs III, Charles Knight, B. A. Albrecht, A.M. Blyth, C.W. Fairall J. B. Jensen, S. G. Lasher-Trapp, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, G. Vali, J. R. Anderson, B. A. Baker, A. R. Bandy, F. Burnet, J-L. Brenguier, W. A. Brewer, "Rain in (Shallow) Cumulus over the Ocean: The RICO Campaign" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v.88, 2007, p.1912.

Robert M. Rauber, Bjorn Stevens, Harry T. Ochs III, Charles Knight, B. A. Albrecht, A.M. Blyth, C.W. Fairall J. B. Jensen, S. G. Lasher-Trapp, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, G. Vali, J. R. Anderson, B. A. Baker, A. R. Bandy, F. Burnet, J-L. Brenguier, W. A. Brewer, "Rain in (Shallow) Cumulus over the Ocean: The RICO Campaign" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v.88, 2007, p.1912-1928. doi:10.1175/bams-88-12-1912 

Peters, D.P.C., O.E. Sala, C.D. Allen, A.P. Covich, M. Brunson "Cascading events in linked ecological and social-economic systems: Predicting change in an uncertain world" Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, v.5, 2007, p.221-224.

Peters, D.P.C., O.E. Sala, C.D. Allen, A.P. Covich, M. Brunson "Cascading events in linked ecological and social-economic systems: Predicting change in an uncertain world" Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, v.5, 2007, p.221-224.

Zalamea, M., G. González, C.L. Ping, and G. Michaelson "Soil organic matter dynamics under decaying wood in a subtropical wet forest: effect of tree species and decay stage" Plant and Soil, v.296, 2007, p.173.

Zalamea, M., and G. González "Leaf Fall Phenology in a Subtropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico: from species to community patterns" Biotropica, v.40, 2008, p.295.

Zimmerman, J. K.H. and A.P. Covich "Damage and recovery of riparian sierra palms (Prestoea acuminata var. montana) after Hurricane Georges: Influence of topography, land use, and biotic characteristics" Biotropica, v., 2007, p..

Uriarte, M. J. S. Clark, L. S. Comita, J. Thompson, and J. K. Zimmerman "Multi-dimensional tradeoffs in species responses to disturbance: Implications for successional diversity in a subtropical forest" Ecology, v.93, 2012, p.191.

Feng, W. T., D. A. Schaefer, J. Z. Li, J. H. Chen, X. M. Zou "Soil mono- and disaccharides and amino acids as influenced by plant litter and root processes in a subtropical moist forest of Southwest China" Biogeochemistry, v.92, 2008, p.119-128. doi:10.1007/s10533-008-9229-0 

Zimmerman, J. K.H. and A.P. Covich "Damage and recovery of riparian sierra palms (Prestoea acuminata var. montana) after Hurricane Georges: Influence of topography, land use, and biotic characteristics" Biotropica, v.39, 2007, p.43-49.

Zimmerman, J. K.H. and A.P. Covich "Damage and recovery of riparian sierra palms (Prestoea acuminata var. montana) after Hurricane Georges: Influence of topography, land use, and biotic characteristics" Biotropica, v.39, 2007, p.43-49.

Brauman, S. Flemming, J.R. Henschel, D.L. Johnson, T.H. Jones, M. Kovarova, J.M.. Kranabetter, L. Kutny, K.-C. Lin, M.M. Dominque Masse, A. Pokarzhevskii, H. Rahman, M.G. Sabara, J.A. Salamon, M.J. Swift, A. Varela, H.L. Vasconcelos, D. White, X.M. Zou "Global decomposition experiment shows soil animal impacts on decomposition are climate-independent" Global Changes Biology, v.14, 2008, p.1.

Covich, A.P. "Protecting benthic biodiversity to insure detrital processing and ecosystem services: Importance of invertebrate shredders in stream networks" Ecotropicos, v., 2006, p..

Shiels, A.B., and G. González "Understanding the key mechanisms of tropical forest responses to canopy loss and biomass deposition from experimental hurricane effects" Forest Ecology and Management, v.332, 2014, p.1.

Prates, M.O., D.K. Dey, M.R. Willig, and J. Yan "Intervention analysis of hurricane effects on snail abundance in a tropical forest using long-term spatio-temporal data" Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, v.16, 2011, p.142-156. doi:10.1007/s13253-010-0039-1 

Willig, M.R., S.J. Presley, and C.P. Bloch "Long-term dynamics of tropical walking sticks in response to multiple large-scale and intense disturbances" Oecologia, v., 2011, p..

Murphy, D.J. M.H. Hall, C. A. S. Hall, G. M. Heisler, S.V. Stehman, and C. Anselmo-Molina "The relationship between land cover and the urban heat island in northeastern Puerto Rico. Int. J. Climatol" Wiley InterScience, v., 2010, p.. doi:10.1002/joc.2145 

Murphy, D.J. M.H. Hall, C. A. S. Hall, G. M. Heisler, S.V. Stehman, and C. Anselmo-Molina "The relationship between land cover and the urban heat island in northeastern Puerto Rico. Int. J. Climatol" International Journal of Climatology, v.P 2.4, 2010, p.1-7. doi:10.1002/joc.2145 

Covich, A.P. "Protecting benthic biodiversity to insure detrital processing and ecosystem services: Importance of invertebrate shredders in stream networks" Ecotropicos, v.19, 2006, p.109-127.

Chan, O.C., P. Casper, L.Q. Sha, Z.L. Feng, Y. Fu, X.D. Yang, A. Ulrich, X.M. Zou "Vegetation cover of forest, shrub and pasture strongly influences soil bacterial community structure as revealed by 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP analysis" FEMS Microbiology Ecology, v.64, 2008, p.449.

Beaulieu, JJ; Tank, JL; Hamilton, SK; Wollheim, WM; Hall, RO; Mulholland, PJ; Peterson, BJ; Ashkenas, LR; Cooper, LW; Dahm, CN; Dodds, WK; Grimm, NB; Johnson, SL; McDowell, WH; Poole, GC; Valett, HM; Arango, CP et. al. "Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v.108, 2011, p.214.

Beaulieu, J. J., J. L. Tank, S. K. Hamilton, W. M. Wollheim, R. O. Hall, P. J. Mulholland, B. J. Peterson, L. R. Ashkenas, L. W. Cooper, C. N. Dahm, W. K. Dodds, N. B. Grimm, S. L. Johnson, W. H. McDowell, G. C. Poole, H. M. Valett, C. P. Arango, et. al. "Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v.108, 2011, p.214-219.

Helton, A.M., G.C. Poole, J.L. Meyer, W.M. Wollheim, B.J. Peterson, P.J. Mulholland, E.S. Bernhardt, J.A. Stanford, C. Arango, L.R. Ashkenas, L.W. Cooper, W.K. Dodds, S.V. Gregory, R.O. Hall Jr, S.K. Hamilton, S.L. Johnson, W.H. McDowell, et.al. "Thinking outside the channel: Modeling nitrogen cycling in networked river ecosystems" Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v., 2011, p.. doi:10.1890/080211 

Helton, AM; Poole, GC; Meyer, JL; Wollheim, WM; Peterson, BJ; Mulholland, PJ; Bernhardt, ES; Stanford, JA; Arango, C; Ashkenas, LR; Cooper, LW; Dodds, WK; Gregory, SV; Hall Jr, RO; Hamilton, SK; Johnson, SL; McDowell, WH; Potter, JD; Tank, JL; et. al. "Thinking outside the channel: Modeling nitrogen cycling in networked river ecosystems" Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v.9, 2011, p.229-238. doi:10.1890/080211 

Shanley, J.B., W.H. McDowell, and R.F. Stallard "Long-term patterns and short-term dynamics of stream solutes and suspended sediment in a rapidly weathering tropical watershed" Water Resources Research, v.47, 2011, p.W07515. doi:10.1029/2010WR009788. 

Collins, S.L, S.R. Carpenter, S.M. Swinton, D.E. Orenstein, D.L. Childers, T.L. Gragson, N.B. Grimm, J.M. Grove, S.L. Harlan, J.P. Kaye, A.K. Knapp, G.P. Kofinas, J. J. Magnuson, W.H. McDowell, J.M. Melack, L.A. Ogden, G. P. Robertson, M.D. Smith, et.al. "An integrated conceptual framework for long-term social-ecological research" Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v., 2011, p.. doi:10.1890/100068 

Collins, S.L, S.R. Carpenter, S.M. Swinton, D.E. Orenstein, D.L. Childers, T.L. Gragson, N.B. Grimm, J.M. Grove, S.L. Harlan, J.P. Kaye, A.K. Knapp, G.P. Kofinas, J. J. Magnuson, W.H. McDowell, J.M. Melack, L.A. Ogden, G. P. Robertson, M.D. Smith, A.C. Wh "An integrated conceptual framework for long-term social-ecological research" Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v.9, 2011, p.351-357. doi:10.1890/100068 

Thompson, S.E., N. B. Basu, J. Lascurain Jr., A. Aubeneau, and P. S. C. Rao "Relative dominance of hydrologic versus biogeochemical factors on solute export across impact gradients" Water Resources Research, v.47, 2011, p.W00J05. doi:10.1029/2010WR009605 

Zhang, M., X. H. Fu, W. T. Feng, and X. M. Zou "Soil organic carbon in pure rubber and tea-rubber plantations in sourthwestern China" Tropical Ecology, v.48, 2007, p.201.

González, G., Emérita García, Verónica Cruz, Sonia Borges, Marcela Zalamea, and María M. Rivera "Earthworm communities along an elevation gradient in Northeastern Puerto Rico" European Journal of Soil Biology, v.43, 2007, p.S24-S32.

Gonzalez, G., Emerita Garci­a, Veronica Cruz, Sonia Borges, Marcela Zalamea, and Maria M. Rivera "Earthworm communities along an elevation gradient in Northeastern Puerto Rico" European Journal of Soil Biology, v.43, 2007, p.S24-S32.

Thorn, R.G, J.-M. Moncalvo, S.A. Redhead, D.J. Lodge and M.P. Martin "A new poroid species of Resupinatus from Puerto Rico, with a reassessment of the cyphelloid genus, Stigmatolemma" Biodiversity and Conservation, v.16, 2006, p.37-48.

Yang, X. D., and X. M. Zou "Soil fauna and leaf litter decomposition in tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China: Effects of mesh size of litterbags" Acta Ecologica Sinica, v.30, 2006, p.791-801.

Choat, D., C. Prather, M. Michel, M. Barnes, D. Hoekman, C. Patrick, J. Ruegg and T.A. Crowl "Integrating theoretical components: A graphical model for graduate students and researchers" BioScience, v.62, 2012, p.594.

Covich, A. P., T. A. Crowl, C. L. Hein, M. J. Townsend, and W. H. McDowell "Predator-prey interactions in river networks: Comparing shrimp spatial refugia in two drainage basins" Freshwater Biology, v.54, 2009, p.450.

Heartshill Scalley, T., T.A. Crowl, and J. Thompson "Tree species distributions in relation to stream distance in mid-montane wet forest, Puerto Rico" Caribbean Journal Science, v.45, 2009, p.52.

Hein, C. L. and Todd A. Crowl "Running the predator gauntlet: do freshwater shrimp (Atya lanipes) migrate above waterfalls to avoid fish predation?" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.29, 2010, p.431.

Hein, C. L.; A. S. Pike; J. F. Blanco; A. P. Covich; F. N. Scatena; C. P. Hawkins; and T. A. Crowl "Effects of coupled natural and anthropogenic factors on the community structure of diadromous fish and shrimp species in tropical island streams" Freshwater Biology, v.56, 2011, p.1002.

Hein, C. L.; A. S. Pike; J. F. Blanco; A. P. Covich; F. N. Scatena; C. P. Hawkins; and T. A. Crowl "Effects of coupled natural and anthropogenic factors on the community structure of diadromous fish and shrimp species in tropical island streams" Freshwater Biology, v.56, 2011, p.1002-1015.

Covich, A.P. "Dispersal-limited biodiversity of tropical insular streams" Polish Journal of Ecology, v., 2006, p..

Bloch, C.P., and M.R. Willig "Context-dependence of long-term responses of terrestrial gastropod populations to large-scale disturbance" J. Tropical Ecology, v., 2006, p..

Royo,A.A., T. Heartsill Scalley, S.Moya, and F.N. Scatena "Non-arborescent vegetation trajectories following repeated hurricane disturbance: ephemeral versus enduring responses" Ecosphere, v.2(7), 2011, p.391-397. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2011.07.008 

Bruijnzeel L.A.; Mulligan M.; Scatena F.N. "Hydrometeorology of tropical montane cloud forests: emerging patterns" Hydrological Processes, v.25, 2010, p.465-498. doi:10.1002/hyp.7974 

A.S. Pike; F.N. Scatena "Riparian indicators of flow frequency in a tropical montane stream network" Journal of Hydrology, v.382, 2010, p.72.

Bloch, C.P., and M.R. Willig "Context-dependence of long-term responses of terrestrial gastropod populations to large-scale disturbance" J. Tropical Ecology, v.22, 2006, p.111-122.

Covich, A.P. "Dispersal-limited biodiversity of tropical insular streams" Polish Journal of Ecology, v.54, 2006, p.523-547.

Ball, BA; JS Kominoski; HE Adams; SE Jones; ES Kane; TD Loeke; WM Mahaney; JP Martina; CM Prather; TMP Robinson; CT Solomon "Direct and Terrestrial Vegetation-mediated Effects of Environmental Change on Aquatic Ecosystem Processes" Bioscience, v.60, 2010, p.590.

Kress W.J.; D.L. Erickson; N.G. Swenson; J. Thompson; M. Uriarte; and J. K. Zimmerman "Advances in the Use of DNA Barcodes to Build a Community Phylogeny for Tropical Trees in a Puerto Rican Forest Dynamics Plot" PLoS One, v.15, 2010, p.. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015409 

Uriarte M.; N. Swenson; R. Chazdon; L.S. Comita; D. L. Erickson; W.J. Kress; J. Thompson; and J.K. Zimmerman "Trait similarity, shared ancestry, and the structure of neighborhood interactions in a subtropical forest: Implications for community assembly" Ecology Letters, v.13, 2010, p.1503.

Zimmerman J.K.; L.S. Comita; J. Thompson; M. Uriarte; and N. V. Brokaw "Patch dynamics and community meta-stability in a tropical forest: Compound effects of natural disturbance and human land use" Landscape Ecology, v.25, 2010, p.1099.

Comita L.S; J. Thompson; M. Uriarte; I. Jonckheere; and J.K. Zimmerman "Land use history alters post-hurricane seedling dynamics in a tropical forest" Ecological Applications, v.20, 2010, p.1270.

Bouskill NJ, Lim HC, Borglin S, Salve R, Wood T, Silver WL, Brodie EL. "Pre-exposure to short-term drought increases the resistance of sub-tropical forest soil bacterial communities to extended drought" ISME Journal, v.7, 2013, p.384.

Covich, A.P., T.A. Crowl, and T. Heartsill-Scalley "Effects of drought and hurricane disturbances on headwater distributions of palaemonid river shrimp (Macrobrachium spp.) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico" Journal of the North American Benthology, v., 2006, p..

Chan, O. C., X. D. Yang, Y. Fu, Z. L. Feng, L. Q. Sha, P. Casper, X. M. Zou "16S rRNA gene analyses of bacterial community structures in the soils of evergreen broad-leaved forests in SW China" FEMs Microbiology Ecology, v., 2006, p..

Huang, C.Y., G. Gonzalez and P. F. Hendrix "The re-colonization ability of a native earthworm species, Estherella spp, in Puerto Rican forests and pastures" Caribbean Journal of Science, v.42, 2006, p.386-396.

Yang, X. D., M. Warren, X. M. Zou "Fertilization responses of soil litter fauna and litter quantity, quality, and turnover in low and high elevation forests of Puerto Rico" Applied Soil Ecology, v.37, 2007, p.63.

Zou, X.M., B. Arandes-Pérez, D. Capó-Ramos, J. Gutiérrez-Santiago, and M. Rosario-Santiago "Comparisons of earthworm community structure between an active pasture and an adjacent tropical wet forest" Caribbean Journal of Science, v.42, 2007, p.311.

González, G., E. Espinosa, Z. Liu, and X. M. Zou "A fluorescent marking and re-count technique using the invasive earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta)" Caribbean Journal of Science, v.43, 2007, p.371.

A.B. Shiels, G. González and M.R. Willig "Responses to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest ecosystem: Synthesis from an experimental manipulation simulating effects of hurricane disturbance" Forest Ecology and Management, v.332, 2014, p.124.

Mulholland, P.J., A.M. Helton, G.C. Poole, R.O. Hall Jr, S.K. Hamilton, B.J. Peterson, J.L. Tank, L.R. Ashkenas, L.W. Cooper, C. N. Dahm, W.K. Dodds, S.E.G. Findlay, S.V. Gregory, N.B. Grimm, S.L. Johnson, W.H. McDowell, J.L. Meyer, H.M. Valett, J.R. Webs "Stream denitrification across biomes and its response to anthropogenic nitrate loading" Nature, v.452, 2008, p.202.

Crowl, T.A., V. Welsh, T. Heartsill-Scalley, A.P. Covich "Effects of different types of conditioning on leaf-litter shredding by Xiphocaris elongata, a Neotropical freshwater shrimp" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v., 2006, p..

Medina, E., G. González, and M.M. Rivera "Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of rainfall inorganic ion composition in northeastern Puerto Rico" Ecological Bulletins, v.54, 2013, p.157.

Wood, T. E. and W. L. Silver "Drought creates a negative feedback to climate change in humid tropical forests" . Global Biogeochemical Cycles VOL. 26, v.26, 2012, p.10.1029/2.

Jaffe, R., D. McKnight, N. Maie, R. Cory, W.H. McDowell, and J.L. Campbell "Spatial and temporal variations in DOM composition in ecosystems" Journal of Geophysical Research, v.113, 2008, p.. doi:10.1029/2008JG000683 

Walker L.R.; F.H. Landau; E. Velázquez; A.B. Shiels; and A.D. Sparrow "Early successional woody plants facilitate and ferns inhibit forest development on Puerto Rican landslides" Journal of Ecology, v.98, 2010, p.625.

Laurance, W. F. et al. "Global warming, elevational ranges and the vulnerability of tropical biota" Biological Conservation, v.144, 2011, p.548.

Silver, W.L., S.J. Hall, and G. González "Differential effects of canopy trimming and litter deposition on litterfall and nutrient dynamics in a wet subtropical forest" Forest Ecologhy and Managment, v.332, 2014, p.47.

Covich, A.P., T.A. Crowl, C.L. Hein, M.J. Townsend, and W.H. McDowell "Predator-prey interactions in river networks: Comparing shrimp spatial refugia in two drainage basins" Freshwater Biology, v.54, 2009, p.450-465.

Bloch, C.P., C.L. Higgins, and M.R. Willig "Effects of large-scale disturbance on metacommunity structure of terrestrial gastropods: temporal trends in nestedness" Oikos, v., 2007, p..

Mueller, G.M., J.P. Schmit, P.R. Leacock, B. Buyck, J. Cifuentes, D.E. Desjardin, R.E. Halling, K. Hjortstam, T. Iturriaga, K.-H. Larsson, D.J. Lodge, T.W. May, D. Minter, M. Rajchenberg, S.A. Redhead, L. Ryvarden, J.M. Trappe, R. Watling and Q. Wu "Global diversity and distribution of macrofungi" Biodiversity and Conservation, v.16, 2007, p.37-48.

Crowl, T.A., V. Welsh, T. Heartsill-Scalley, A.P. Covich "Effects of different types of conditioning on leaf-litter shredding by Xiphocaris elongata, a Neotropical freshwater shrimp" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.25, 2006, p.198-208.

Presley S.J.; M.R. Willig; C.P. Bloch; I. Castro-Arellano; C. Higgins; and B.T. Klingbeil "A complex metacommunity structure for gastropods along an elevational gradient" Biotropica, v.43, 2011, p.480.

Willig, M.R., S.J. Presley, C.P. Bloch, I. Castro-Arellano, L.M. Cisneros, C.L. Higgins, and B.T. Klingbeil "Tropical metacommunities along elevational gradients: effects of forest type and other environmental factors" Oikos, v.120, 2011, p.1497-1508. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19218.x 

Willig M.R.; S.J. Presley; C.P. Bloch; I. Castro-Arellano; L.M. Cisneros; C.L. Higgins; and B. T. Klingbeil "Tropical metacommunities along elevational gradients: effects of forest type and other environmental factors" Oikos, v.120, 2011, p.1497-1508. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19218.x 

De Jesus-Crespo R.; A. Ramirez "Effects of urbanization on stream physicochemistry and macroinvertebrate assemblages in a tropical urban watershed in Puerto Rico" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.30, 2011, p.739-750.

Boyero L.; R.G. Pearson; M.O. Gessner; L.A. Barmuta; V. Ferreira; M.A.S. Grasa; D. Dudgeon; A.J. Boulton; M. Callisto; E. Chauvet; J.E. Helson; A. Bruder; R.J. Albario; C.M. Yule; M. Arunachalam; J.N. Davies; R. Figueroa; A.S. Flecker;et al "A global experiment suggests climate warming will not accelerate litter decomposition in streams but may reduce carbon sequestration" Ecology Letters, v.14, 2011, p.289.

De Jesus-Crespo R.; A. Rami­rez "The use of a stream visual assessment protocol to determine ecosystem integrity in an urban watershed in Puerto Rico" Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, v.36, 2011, p.560-566. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2010.11.007 

Hanson P.; M. Springer; A. Ramirez "Introduccion a los grupos de macroinvertebrados acuaticos" Revista de Biologia Tropical, v.58, 2010, p.3.

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Swenson, N.G.., J. C. Stegen, S. J. Davies, D. L. Erickson, J. Forero-Montana, A. H. Hurlbert, W. J. Kress, J. Thompson, M. Uriarte, S. J. Wright, and J. K. Zimmerman "Temporal Turnover in the Composition of Tropical Tree Communities: Functional Determinism and Phylogenetic Stochasticity" Ecology, v.93, 2012, p.490-499.

Walker, L.R. and R. del Moral "Lessons from primary succession for restoration of severely damaged habitats" Applied Vegetation Science, v.12, 2009, p.55-67.

Rivera, S, de Anguita, PM, Ramsey, RD and Crowl, TA. "Spatial Modeling of Tropical Deforestation Using Socioeconomic and Biophysical Data" Small-Scale Forestry, v.12, 2013, p.3221.

Blanco-Libreros JF & A Arroyave-Rincon "Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico" Rev. Biol. Trop., v.57, 2009, p.1069-1080.

Pett-Ridge, J., W. L. Silver, and M. K. Firestone "Redox fluctuations in a humid tropical forest soil impact N-cycling rates by framing the composition of the soil microbial community" Biogeochemistry, v., 2006, p..

Yackulic, C.B., M.E. Fagan, M. Jain, A. Jina, Y. Lim, M. Marlier, B. Muscarella, P. Adame, R.S. DeFries, and M. Uriarte "Biophysical and socioeconomic factors associated with forest transitions at multiple temporal and spatial scales" Ecology and Society, v.16(3), 2011, p.15.

DeAngelis, K. M., J. L. Foutney, S. Borglin, W. L. Silver, B. A. Simmons, and T. Hazen "Anaerobic decomposition of switchgrass by tropical soil-derived feedstock adapted consortia" mBio, v., 2012, p.. doi:10.1128/ mBio.00249-11 

Liptzin, D., W. L. Silver, and M. Detto "Temporal dynamics in soil oxygen and trace gases in two tropical rain forests" Ecosystems, v.14, 2011, p.171-182.

Yang, W. H. D. J. Herman, D. Liptzin, and W. L. Silver "Using phosphate filtration to remove iron interference from colorimetric nitrate determination in soil extracts" Soil Biology and Biochemistry, v.46, 2012, p.123-128.

Yang, W. H., K. A. Weber, and W. L. Silver "Nitrogen loss from soil via anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction" Nature GeoScience, v.5, 2012, p.538-541.

Engman, A. C. and A. Ramirez "). Fish assemblage structure in urban streams of Puerto Rico: The importance of reach- and catchment-scale abiotic factors" Hydrobiologia, v., 2012, p.. doi:10.1007/s10750-012-1100-6 

Ramirez, A., A. Engman, K.G. Rosas, O. Perez-Reyes, and D.M. Martino-Cardona "Urban impacts on tropical island streams: some key aspects influencing ecosystem response" Urban Ecosystems, v.15(2), 2012, p.315-325.

Sharpe, J.M., and A.B. Shiels "Understory fern community structure, growth and spore production responses to a large-scale hurricane experiment in a Puerto Rico rainforest" Forest Ecology and Management, v.332, 2014, p.75.

Ramirez, A., M. Altamiranda-Saavedra, P. Gutierrez-Fonseca and M. Springer "The neotropical damselfly genus Cora: New larval descriptions and a comparative analysis of larvae of known species (Odonata: Polythoridae)" International Journal of Odonatology, v.14(3), 2011, p.249256.

Swenson, N.G., Stegen, J.C., Davies, S.J., Erickson, D.L., Forero-Montana, J., Hurlbert, A.H., Kress, W.J., Thompson, J., Uriarte, M., and Zimmerman, J.K "Temporal turnover in the composition of tropical tree communities: functional determinism and phylogenetic stochasticity" Ecology, v.93, 2012, p.490-499.

Swenson, N.G., D.L. Erickson, X. Mi, N.A. Bourg, J. Forero-Montana, X. Ge, R. Howe, J.K. Lake, X. Liu, K. Ma, N. Pei, J. Thompson, M. Uriarte, A. Wolf, S.J. Wright, W. Ye, J. Zhang, J.K. Zimmerman, and W.J. Kress "Phylogenetic and functional alpha and beta diversity in temperate and tropical tree communities" Ecology, v.93(8), 2012, p.S112-S125.

Presley, S. J., M. R. Willig, C. P. Bloch, I. Castro-Arellano, C. Higgins, and B. T. Klingbeil. "A complex metacommunity structure for gastropods along an elevational gradient." Biotropica, v.43, 2011, p.480-488..

Bloch, C. P., R. D. Stevens, and M. R. Willig. "Body size and resource competition in New World bats: A test of spatial scaling laws." Ecography, v.34, 2011, p.1460-1468.

Willig, M. R. "Biodiversity and Productivity." Science, v.333, 2011, p.1709-1710.

Gomez-Hernandez, M, Williams-Linera G, Guevara R, Lodge DJ "Patterns of macromycete community assemblage along an elevation gradient: options for fungal gradient and metacommunity analyes" Biodivers Conserv, v.21, 2012, p.2247-2268. doi:10.1007/s10531-011-0180-3 

Woolbright, L.L. and M. M. Stewart "Spatial and temporal variation in color pattern morphology in the tropical frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui" Copeia, v., 2008, p.431-437.

Woolbright, L.L. and M. M. Stewart "Spatial and temporal variation in color pattern morphology in the tropical frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui" Copeia, v.2008, 2008, p.431-437.

Triska, F.J., C.M. Pringle, J.H. Duff, R.J. Avanzino, A. Ramírez, M. Ardon & A.P. Jackman "Soluble Reactive Phosphorus transport and retention in tropical, rainforest streams draining a volcanic and geothermally active landscape in Costa Rica. 1: LLong-term concentration patterns, pore water environment and response to ENSO events" Biogeochemistry, v., 2006, p..

Triska, F.J., C.M. Pringle, J.H. Duff, R.J. Avanzino, A. Ramirez, M. Ardon & A.P. Jackman "Soluble Reactive Phosphorus transport and retention in tropical, rainforest streams draining a volcanic and geothermally active landscape in Costa Rica. 1: LLong-term concentration patterns, pore water environment and response to ENSO events" Biogeochemistry, v.81, 2006, p.. doi:10.1007/s10533-10006-19026-10536 

Hopkinson, C., A. E. Lugo, M. Alber, A. P. Covich, S. J. Van Bloem "Forecasting effects of sea-level rise and windstorms on coastal and inland ecosystems" Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, v.6, 2008, p.255-263.

Ping, C.-L., G.J. Michaelson, C.A. Stiles, and G. González "Soil characteristics, carbon stores, and nutrient distribution in eight forest types along an elevational gradient, eastern Puerto Rico" Ecological Bulletins, v.54, 2013, p.67.

Brown, C et al (31 other authors) "Multispecies coexistence of trees in tropical forests: spatial signals of topographic niche differentiation increase with environmental heterogeneity" . Proc. R. Soc. B, v.280, 2013, p.10.1098/r.

González, G., W.A. Gould, A.T. Hudak, and T. Hollingsworth "Decay of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) wood in moist and dry boreal, temperate and tropical forest fragments" Ambio, v.37, 2008, p.577-587.

Gonzalez, G., W.A. Gould, A.T. Hudak, and T. Hollingsworth "Decay of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) wood in moist and dry boreal, temperate and tropical forest fragments" Ambio, v.37, 2008, p.577-587.

Lodge DJ, Læssoe T, Aime MC, and TW Henkel "Montane and cloud forest specialists among neotropical Xylaria species" North American Fungi, v.3, 2008, p.193-213.

Lodge DJ, Laessoe, E T, Aime MC, and TW Henkel "Montane and cloud forest specialists among neotropical Xylaria species" North American Fungi, v.3, 2008, p.193-213.

Jaffé, R., D. McKnight, N. Maie, R. Cory, W.H. McDowell, and J.L. Campbell "Spatial and temporal variations in DOM composition in ecosystems: The importance of long-term monitoring of optical properties" Journal of Geophysical Research, v.113, 2008, p.. doi:10.1029/2008JG000683 

Jaffe, R., D. McKnight, N. Maie, R. Cory, W.H. McDowell, and J.L. Campbell "Spatial and temporal variations in DOM composition in ecosystems: The importance of long-term monitoring of optical properties" Journal of Geophysical Research, v.113, 2008, p.1-15. doi:10.1029/2008JG000683 

? Grace, J.B., T.M. Anderson, M.D. Smith, E. Seabloom, S.J. Andelman, G. Meche, E. Weiher, L.K. Allain, H. Jutila, M. Sankaran, J. Knops, M. Ritchie, and M.R. Willig "Integrating abiotic factors and biotic interactions into our understanding of diversity and primary production in natural grassland communities" Ecology Letters, v., 2007, p..

Callaham, M. A., G. Gonzalez, C. H. Hale, L. Heneghan, S. L. Lachnicht, and X. M. Zou "Policy and management responses to earthworm invasion in North America" Biological Invasions 8, v., 2006, p..

Pett-Ridge, J., W. L. Silver, and M. K. Firestone "Redox fluctuations in a humid tropical forest soil impact N-cycling rates by framing the composition of the soil microbial community" Biogeochemistry, v.81, 2006, p.95-110. doi:10/1007/210053-210006-219032-210058 

Baroni, T.J., A.E. Franco-Molano, D.J. Lodge, D.L. Lindner, E. Horak, and V. Hofstetter "Arthromyces and Blastosporella, two new genera of conidia-producing lyophylloid agarics (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) from the neotropics" Mycological Research, v.111, 2007, p.572-580.

Teh, Y. A., W. L. Silver, M. E. Conrad, S. E. Borglin, and C. M. Carlson "Carbon isotope fractionation by methane-oxidizing bacteria in tropical rain forest soils" J. Geophys. Res, v., 2006, p..

Teh, Y. A., W. L. Silver, M. E. Conrad, S. E. Borglin, and C. M. Carlson "Carbon isotope fractionation by methane-oxidizing bacteria in tropical rain forest soils" Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences III G02001, v., 2006, p.. doi:10.1029/2005JG000053 

Mueller, G.M., J.P. Schmit, P.R. Leacock, B. Buyck, J. Cifuentes, D.E. Desjardin, R.E. Halling, K. Hjortstam, T. Iturriaga, K.-H. Larsson, D.J. Lodge, T.W. May, D. Minter, M. Rajchenberg, S.A. Redhead, L. Ryvarden, J.M. Trappe, R. Watling and Q. Wu "Global diversity and distribution of macrofungi" Biodiversity and Conservation, v., 2007, p..

Covich, A.P., T.A. Crowl, C.L. Hein, M.J. Townsend, and W.H. McDowell "Predator-prey interactions in river networks: Comparing shrimp spatial refugia in two drainage basins" Freshwater Biology, v.54, 2009, p.450-465.

Hall R.O. Jr, J.L. Tank, D.J. Sobota, P.J. Mulholland, J.M. OBrien, W.K. Dodds, J.R. Webster, H.M. Valett, G.C. Poole, B.J. Peterson, J.L. Meyer, W.H. McDowell, S.L. Johnson, S.K. Hamilton, N.B. Grimm, S.V. Gregory, C.N. Dahm, L.W. Cooper, et al "Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: total uptake" Limnology and Oceanography, v.54, 2009, p.653-665.

Callaham, M. A., G. Gonzalez, C. H. Hale, L. Heneghan, S. L. Lachnicht, and X. M. Zou "Policy and management responses to earthworm invasion in North America" Biological Invasions (Special Issue), v.8, 2006, p.1317-1329.

Mulholland P.J., R.O. Hall Jr, D.J. Sobota, W.K. Dodds, S. Findlay, N.B. Grimm, S.K. Hamilton, W.H. McDowell, J.M. Oâ??Brien, J.L. Tank, L.R. Ashkenas, L.W. Cooper, C.N. Dahm, S.V. Gregory, S.L. Johnson, J.L. Meyer, B.J. Peterson, G.C. Poole, et al "Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: denitrification" Limnology and Oceanography, v.54, 2009, p.666.

Cook, B. D., C. M. Pringle and J. M. Hughes "Molecular evidence for sequential colonization and taxon cycling in freshwater decapod shrimps on a Caribbean island" Molecular Ecology, v.17, 2008, p.1066-1075.

Chacon, N. W. L. Silver, E. A. Dubinsky, and D. F. Cusack "Iron reduction and soil phosphorus solubilization in humid tropical forests soils: the roles of labile carbon pools and an electron shuttle compound" Biogeochemistry, v., 2006, p..

Cook, B. D., C. M. Pringle and J. M. Hughes "Molecular evidence for sequential colonization and taxon cycling in freshwater decapod shrimps on a Caribbean island" Molecular Ecology, v.17, 2008, p.1066-1075. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03637.x 

Chacon, N. W. L. Silver, E. A. Dubinsky, and D. F. Cusack "Iron reduction and soil phosphorus solubilization in humid tropical forests soils: the roles of labile carbon pools and an electron shuttle compound" Biogeochemistry, v.78, 2006, p.67-84.

González, G., R.B. Waide, and M.R. Willig "Advancements in the understanding of spatiotemporal gradients in tropical landscapes: a Luquillo focus and global perspective" Ecological Bulletins, v.54, 2013, p.245.

Cook, B. D., S. Bernays, C. M. Pringle, and J. M. Hughes "Marine dispersal determines the genetic population structure of migratory stream fauna of Rico: evidence for island-scale population recovery processes" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.28, 2009, p.709-718. doi:10.1899/09-008.1 

Cook, B. D., C. M. Pringle and J. M. Hughes "Immigration history of amphidromous species on a Greater Antillean island" Journal of Biogeography, v.37, 2010, p.270-277. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02215. 

Cook, B. D., C. M. Pringle, and J. M. Hughes "Phylogeography of an island endemic: the Puerto Rican freshwater crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons" Journal of Heredity, v.99, 2008, p.. doi:157-164 

Cook, B. D., C. M. Pringle, and J. M. Hughes "Phylogeography of an island endemic: the Puerto Rican freshwater crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons" Journal of Heredity, v.99, 2008, p.157-164. doi:10.1093/jhered/esm126 

Crook, K. E., C. M. Pringle, and M. C. Freeman "A method to assess bi-directional riverine connectivity in tropical streams dominated by migratory biota" Aquatic Conservation, v., 2009, p..

Teh, Y. A., and W. L. Silver "Effects of soil structure destruction on methane production and carbon partitioning between methanogenic pathways in tropical rain forest soils" Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, v., 2006, p..

Teh, Y. A., and W. L. Silver "Effects of soil structure destruction on methane production and carbon partitioning between methanogenic pathways in tropical rain forest soils" Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences III, v.111, 2006, p.. doi:10.1029/2005jg000020 

Hall, S. J. and W. L. Silver "Minerals masquerading as enzymes: Iron oxidation stimulates soil carbon decomposition" Global Change Biology, v.19, 2013, p.2804.

Smith, K. L., I. Corujo-Flores, and C. M. Pringle "A comparison of the current and historical fish assemblages in a Caribbean island estuary: Conservation value of historical data" Aquatic Conservation, v.18, 2008, p.993.

Wei Wu, Hall C.A.S., Scatena F.N. "Modeling the impact of land use change on the stream flows at the meso-scale watershed level in North-Eastern Puerto Rico" Hydrological Processes, v., 2007, p..

D.S. Srivastava, M.K. Trzcinski, B.A. Richardson and B. Gilbert "Why are predators more sensitive to habitat size than their prey? Insights from bromeliad insect food webs?" American Naturalist, v.172, 2008, p.761.

Heartsill-Scalley T., Scatena F.N., Estrada C., McDowell W.H., Lugo A.E. "Disturbance and long-term patterns of rainfall and throughfall nutrient fluxes in a subtropical forest in Puerto Rico" Journal of Hydrology, v.333, 2007, p.472-485. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.09.019 

Grace, J.B., T.M. Anderson, M.D. Smith, E. Seabloom, S.J. Andelman, G. Meche, E. Weiher, L.K. Allain, H. Jutila, M. Sankaran, J. Knops, M. Ritchie, and M.R. Willig "Integrating abiotic factors and biotic interactions into our understanding of diversity and primary production in natural grassland communities" Ecology Letters, v.10, 2007, p.680-689.

Scheiner, S.M., and M.R. Willig. "A general theory of ecology" Theoretical Ecology, v., 2008, p..

Schowalter, T.D., M.R. Willig and S.J. Presley "Canopy arthropod responses to experimental canopy opening and debris deposition in a tropical rainforest subject to hurricanes" Forest Ecology and Managment, v.332, 2014, p.93.

McDowell, W.H., and D. Liptzin "Linking soils and streams: Response of soil solution chemistry to simulated hurricane disturbance mirrors stream chemistry following a severe hurricane" Forest Ecology and Management, v.332, 2014, p.56.

Trumbore, S. E, E. Salazar da Costa, P. Barbosa de Camargo, L. A. Martinelli, D. Nepstad, D. Ray, and W. L. Silver. "Dynamics of fine root carbon in Amazonian tropical ecosystems" Global Change Biology, v., 2006, p..

Scheiner, S.M., and M.R. Willig. "A general theory of ecology" Theoretical Ecology, v.1, 2008, p.21-28. doi:10.1007/s12080-007-0002-0 

Sharpe, J. M. "Responses of the mangrove fern Acrostichum danaeifolium Langsd. & Fisch. (Pteridaceae, Pteridophyta) to disturbances resulting from increased salinity and Hurricane Georges at the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Puerto Rico" Wetlands Ecology and Management, v.18, 2010, p.57-68. doi:10.1007/s11273-009-9148-4 

Restrepo, C., L.R. Walker, A.B. Shiels, R. Bussman, L. Claessens, S. Fisch, P. Lozano, G. Negi, L. Paolini, G. Poveda, C. Ramos-Scharrón, M. Richter, and E. Velázquez "Landsliding and its multi-scale influences on mountainscapes" BioScience, v.59, 2009, p.685.

Trumbore, S. E, E. Salazar da Costa, P. Barbosa de Camargo, L. A. Martinelli, D. Nepstad, D. Ray, and W. L. Silver. "Dynamics of fine root carbon in Amazonian tropical ecosystems" Global Change Biology, v.12, 2006, p.217-229.

Laurance, et al. (including N. Brokaw, A. E. Lugo, C. M. Pringle) . "Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical protected areas." Nature, v.489, 2012, p.290.

Shiels, A.B., C.A. West, L. Weiss, P.D. Klawinski, and L.R. Walker "Soil factors predict initial plant colonization on Puerto Rican landslides" Plant Ecology, v.195, 2008, p.165.

Hendrix, P.F., Baker, G.H., Callaham Jr., M.A., Damoff, G.A., Fragoso, C., Gonzaìlez, G., James, S.W., (...), Zou, X. "Invasion of exotic earthworms into ecosystems inhabited by native earthworms" Biological Invasions 8, v., 2006, p..

Lugo, A.E., F.J. Swanson, O. Ramos González, M.B. Adams, B. Palik, R.E. Thill, D.G. Brockway, C. Kern, R. Woodsmith, and R. Musselman. "Long-term research at the USDA Forest Service?s experimental forests and ranges" BioScience, v., 2006, p..

Shiels, A.B., C.A. West, L. Weiss, P.D. Klawinski and L.R. Walker "Soil factors predict initial plant colonization on Puerto Rican landslides" Plant Ecology, v., 2007, p..

Lugo, A.E., F.J. Swanson, O. Ramos Gonz�¡lez, M.B. Adams, B. Palik, R.E. Thill, D.G. Brockway, C. Kern, R. Woodsmith, and R. Musselman. "Long-term research at the USDA Forest Service's experimental forests and ranges" BioScience, v.56, 2006, p.39-48.

Pérez-Reyes O, Crowl TA, Hernández-García PJ, Villar-Fornes F, Ledesma-Fuste R, Covich A "Freshwater decapods of Puerto Rico: a checklist and reports of new localities" Zootaxa, v.3717, 2013, p.329.

Wei Wu, Hall C.A.S., Scatena F.N. "Modeling the impact of land use change on the stream flows at the meso-scale watershed level in North-Eastern Puerto Rico" Hydrological Processes, v.21, 2007, p.. doi:10.1002/hyp.6515 

Gould, W.A.; Gonzalez, G. & Carrero Rivera, G. "Structure and composition of vegetation along an elevational gradient in Puerto Rico" Journal of Vegetation Science, v.17, 2006, p.653-664.

Willig, M.R., S.J. Presley, C.P. Bloch, and J. Alvarez "Population, community, and metacommunity dynamics of terrestrial gastropods in the Luquillo Mountains: a gradient perspective" Ecological Bulletins, v.54, 2013, p.117.

Hendrix, P.F., Baker, G.H., Callaham Jr., M.A., Damoff, G.A., Fragoso, C., Gonzalez, G., James, S.W., (...), Zou, X. "Invasion of exotic earthworms into ecosystems inhabited by native earthworms" Biological Invasions (Special Issue), v.8, 2006, p.1287-1300.

Lugo, A.E. "Agroforestry and biodiversity conservation in tropical landscapes" Ecological Restoration, v., 2006, p..

Gonzalez, G., E. Espinosa, L. Zhigang, and X. Zou "A fluorescent marking and re-count technique using the invasive earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta)" Caribbean Journal of Science, v.42, 2006, p.371-379.

B A Richardson, S Borges, and M J Richardson "Differences between Epigeic Earthworm Populations in Tank Bromeliads from Puerto Rico and Dominica" Caribbean Journal of Science, v.42, 2006, p.380-385.

Hobbs, R.J., S. Arico, J. Aronson, J.S. Baron, P. Bridgewater, V.A. Kramer, P.R. Epstein, J.J. Ewel, C.A. Klink, A.E. Lugo, D. Norton, D. Ojima, D.M. Richardson, E.W. Sanderson, F. Valladares, M. Vilá, R. Zarmora and M. Zobel "Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order" Global Ecology and Biogeography, v., 2006, p..

Heartsill Scalley, T., F.N. Scatena, C. Estrada, W.H. McDowell, and A.E. Lugo "Disturbance and long-term patterns of rainfall and throughfall nutrient fluxes in a subtropical forest in Puerto Rico" Journal of Hydrology, v., 2007, p..

Hobbs, R.J., S. Arico, J. Aronson, J.S. Baron, P. Bridgewater, V.A. Kramer, P.R. Epstein, J.J. Ewel, C.A. Klink, A.E. Lugo, D. Norton, D. Ojima, D.M. Richardson, E.W. Sanderson, F. Valladares, M. Vilá, R. Zarmora and M. Zobel "Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order" Global Ecology and Biogeography, v.15, 2006, p.1-7.

Van Bloem, S.J., A.E. Lugo, and P.G. Murphy "Structural response of Caribbean dry forests to hurricane winds: a case study from Guánica forest, Puerto Rico" Journal of Biogeography, v., 2006, p..

Comita, L.S, J. Thompson, M. Uriarte, I. Jonckheere, and J.K. Zimmerman "Land use history alters post-hurricane seedling dynamics in a tropical forest" Ecological Applications, v.20, 2010, p.1270.

Comita, L.S, M. Uriarte, J. Thompson, I. Jonckheere, C.D. Canham, and J.K. Zimmerman "Abiotic and biotic drivers of seedling survival in a hurricane-impacted tropical forest" J Ecology, v.97, 2009, p.1346-1359.

Van Bloem, S.J., A.E. Lugo, and P.G. Murphy "Structural response of Caribbean dry forests to hurricane winds: a case study from Gu�¡nica forest, Puerto Rico" Journal of Biogeography, v.33, 2006, p.517-523.

Flynn DBF, M. Uriarte, T. Crk, J. B. Pascarella, J. K. Zimmerman, and M. Caraballo "Hurricane disturbance alters secondary forest recovery and introduced species dynamics" Biotropica, v.42, 2010, p.149-157.

Molina Colón, S. and A.E. Lugo "Recovery of a subtropical dry forest after abandonment of different land uses" Biotropica, v., 2006, p..

Molina Colon, S. and A.E. Lugo "Recovery of a subtropical dry forest after abandonment of different land uses" Biotropica, v.38, 2006, p.354-364.

Lugo A.E. "El manejo de la caoba define la agenda de conservación" Recursos Naturales y Ambiente, v., 2006, p..

Covich, A. P., T. A. Crowl, and T. Heartsill Scalley "Effects of drought and hurricane disturbances on headwater distributions of palaemonid river shrimp (Macrobrachium spp.) over 15 years in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v., 2006, p..

Zalamea, M., G. González, C.L. Ping, and G. Michaelson. (in press). "Soil organic matter dynamics under decaying wood in a subtropical wet forest: effect of tree species and decay stage" Plant and Soil, v., 2007, p..

Blanco J.F., Scatena F.N. "The Spatial Arrangement of Neritina Virginea during upstream migration in a split-channel reach" River Research and Applications, v., 2007, p..

Canham, CD, J. Thompson, J.K. Zimmerman, and M. Uriarte "Variation in susceptibility to hurricane damage as a function of storm severity in Puerto Rican tree species" Biotropica, v.42, 2010, p.87-94.

Lugo A.E. "El manejo de la caoba define la agenda de conservacion" Recursos Naturales y Ambiente, v.44, 2005, p.6-8.

Klawinski, P.D., B. Dalton and A.B. Shiels "Coqui frog populations are negatively affected by canopy opening but not detritus deposition following an experimental hurricane in a tropical rainforest" Forest Ecology and Management, v.332, 2014, p.118.

Crk, T., M. Uriarte, F. Corsi, DBF Flynn "Tropical forest recovery in Puerto Rico. What is the relative importance of biophysical, socioeconomic, and landscape variables?" Landscape Ecology, v.24, 2009, p.629-642.

Lugo, A.E. "Lecciones ecologicas de una isla que lo ha visto todo. [Ecological lessons from an island that has experienced it all]" Ecotropicos, v., 2006, p..

Rudel T, L.C. Schneider, M. Uriarte "Forest transitions: An introduction" Land Use Policy, v.27, 2009, p.95-97.

Uriarte, M., L. Schneider, and T.K. Rudel "Land use transitions in the tropics: Going beyond the case studies" Biotropica, v.42, 2010, p.1-2.

Lugo, A.E. "Lecciones ecologicas de una isla que lo ha visto todo. [Ecological lessons from an island that has experienced it all]" Ecotropicos, v.19, 2006, p.57-71.

González, G., D.J. Lodge, B.A. Richardson and M.J. Richardson "A canopy trimming experiment in Puerto Rico: The response of litter decomposition and nutrient release to canopy opening and debris deposition in a subtropical wet forest" Froest Ecology and Management, v.332, 2014, p.32.

Lugo, A.E.; Abelleira, O.J.; Borges, S.; Colón, L.J.; Meléndez, S.; Rodríguez, M.A. "Preliminary estimate of earthworm abundance and species richness in Spathodea campanulata Beauv. forests in northern Puerto Rico" Caribbean Journal of Science, v., 2006, p..

Lugo, A.E.; Abelleira, O.J.; Borges, S.; Colon, L.J.; Melendez, S.; Rodriguez, M.A. "Preliminary estimate of earthworm abundance and species richness in Spathodea campanulata Beauv. forests in northern Puerto Rico" Caribbean Journal of Science, v.42, 2006, p.325-330.

Chen, J. H., X. M. Zou, and X. D. Yang "Retention of plant available P in acid soils of tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests" Acta Ecologica Sinica, v., 2006, p..

Heartsill-Scalley, T.; Scatena, F.N.; Estrada, C.; McDowell, W.H.; Lugo, A.E. "Disturbance and long-term patterns of rainfall and throughfall nutrient fluxes in a subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico" Journal of Hydrology, v., 2007, p..

Zhang, M., X. H. Fu, W. T. Feng, and X. M. Zou "Soil organic carbon in pure rubber and tea-rubber plantations in sourthwestern China" Tropical Ecology, v.48, 2007, p.201-207.

Covich, A. P., T. A. Crowl, and T. Heartsill Scalley "Effects of drought and hurricane disturbances on headwater distributions of palaemonid river shrimp (Macrobrachium spp.) over 15 years in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.25, 2006, p.99-107.

Uriarte, M., C. D. Canham, J. Thompson, J. K. Zimmerman "Understanding natural disturbance and human land use as determinants of tree community dynamics in a subtropical wet forest: Results from a forest simulator" Ecological Monographs, v.79, 2009, p.423-443.

Medina, E.; Cuevas, E.; Lugo, A. "Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal wetlands of the Caribbean: assessment through leaf and soil analyses" Trees, v., 2007, p..

Medina, E.; Cuevas, E.; Lugo, A. "Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal wetlands of the Caribbean: assessment through leaf and soil analyses" Trees - Structure and function, v.21, 2007, p.321-327. doi:10.1007/s00468-007-0125-3 

Van Bloem, S.K.; Murphy, P.G.; Lugo, A.E. "A link between hurricane-induced tree sprouting, high stem density and short canopy in tropical dry forest" Tree Physiology, v., 2007, p..

Chisholm, Ryan A. Et al and 64 other authors "Scale-dependent relationships between tree species richness and ecosystem function in forests" Journal of Ecology, v.101, 2013, p.510.

Presley, S.J., and M.R. Willig "Bat metacommunity structure on Caribbean islands and the role of endemics" Global Ecology and Biogeography, v.19, 2010, p.185-199. doi:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00505.x 

Van Bloem, S.K.; Murphy, P.G.; Lugo, A.E. "A link between hurricane-induced tree sprouting, high stem density and short canopy in tropical dry forest" Tree Physiology, v.27, 2007, p.475-480.

Swenson, N.G., D.L. Erickson, X. Mi, N. Bourg, J. Montana-Forero, R. Howe, J.K. Lake, X. Liu, X., J. Thompson, M. Uriarte, A. Wolf, J. Zhang, J.K. Zimmerman and W. J. Kress, W.J "Phylogenetic and functional beta diversity in tree communities across latitude" Ecology, v.93, 2012, p.S112.

Chen, J. H., X. M. Zou, and X. D. Yang "Retention of plant available P in acid soils of tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests" Acta Ecologica Sinica, v.26, 2006, p.2294-2300.

Chalcraft, D.R., B.J. Wilsey, C. Bowles, and M.R. Willig "The relationship between productivity and multiple aspects of species diversity in six grassland communities" Biodiversity and Conservation, v.17, 2009, p.747.

Scatena, FN, J. Ortiz-Zayas and JF Blanco "Helping HELP with limited resources: The Luquillo experience" Water SA 34(4 special HELP edition), v.34, 2008, p.497-508.

López-Rodríguez, SR and JF Blanco. "Illicit crops in tropical America: deforestation, landslides, and terrestrial carbon stocks" Ambio, v.3, 2008, p.141-143.

Lopez-Rodriguez, SR and JF Blanco. "Illicit crops in tropical America: deforestation, landslides, and terrestrial carbon stocks" Ambio, v.3, 2008, p.141-143.

Crowl, T. A., V. K. Welsh, T. Heartsill Scalley, and A. P. Covich "The Role of Shrimp as Shredders and Litter Source on Leaf Breakdown Rates in Tropical Montane Streams" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v., 2006, p..

Jones, G., D.S. Jacobs, T.H. Kunz, M.R. Willig, and P.A. Racey "Carpe noctem: The importance of bats as bioindicators" Endangered Species Research, v.8, 2009, p.93.

Crowl, T. A., V. K. Welsh, T. Heartsill Scalley, and A. P. Covich "The Role of Shrimp as Shredders and Litter Source on Leaf Breakdown Rates in Tropical Montane Streams" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.25, 2006, p.19.

Harris, N.L.; Hall, C.A.S.; Lugo, A.E. "Estimates of species- and ecosystem-level respiration of woody stems along an elevational gradient in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico" Ecological Modelling, v.216, 2008, p.253-264.

Prather, C. "Divergent responses of leaf herbivory to simulated hurricane effects in a rainforest understory" Forest Ecology and Mangement, v.332, 2014, p.87.

Liptzin, D. and W. L. Silver "Effects of carbon additions on iron reduction and phosphorus availability in a humid tropical forest soil" Soil Biology and Biochemistry, v.41, 2009, p.1696-1702. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.05.013 

Liptzin, D. and W. L. Silver "Effects of carbon additions on iron reduction and phosphorus availability in a humid tropical forest soil" Soil Biology and Biochemistry, v.41, 2009, p.1969-1702.

Cantrell, S.A., Lodge, D. J., Cruz, C. A., García, L. M., Pérez-Jiménez, J. R., Molina, M. "Differential abundance of microbial functional groups along the elevation gradient from the coast to the Luquillo Mountains" . Ecological Bulletins, v.54, 2013, p.87.

Cusack, D. F., W. L. Silver, and W. H McDowell "Biological nitrogen fixation in two tropical forests: ecosystem-level patterns and effects of nitrogen fertilization" Ecosystems, v.12, 2009, p.1299-1315.

Zalamea, M., G. Gonzalez, C.L. Ping, and G. Michaelson. (in press). "Soil organic matter dynamics under decaying wood in a subtropical wet forest: effect of tree species and decay stage" Plant and Soil, v.297, 2007, p.173-185. doi:10.1007/s11104-007-9307- 

Currie, W. S., M. E. Harmon, I. Burke, S. C. Hart, W. J. Parton, and W. L. Silver "Cross-biome transplants of plant litter show decomposition models extend to a broader climatic range but lose predictability at the decadal time scale" Global Change Biology, v.16, 2009, p.1744-1761. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02086.x 

Hopkinson, C.S.; Lugo, A.E.; Alber, M.; Covich, A.P.; Van Bloem, S.J. "Forecasting effects of sea-level rise and windstorms on coastal and inland ecosystems" Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, v.6, 2008, p.255-263.

Li, Y., M. Xu, and X. M. Zou "Heterotrophic soil respiration in relation to environmental factors and microbial biomass in two tropical wet forests" Plant and Soil, v., 2006, p..

Teh, Y. A., W. L. Silver, and F. N. Scatena "A decade of belowground reorganization following multiple disturbances in a subtropical wet forest" Plant and Soil, v.323, 2009, p.197-212. doi:10.1007/s11104-009-9926-z 

Lugo, A.E. "Visible and invisible effects of hurricanes on forest ecosystems: an international review" Austral Ecology, v.33, 2008, p.368-398.

Richardson, B.A., Richardson, M.J "Litter-based invertebrate communities in forest floor and bromeliad microcosms along an elevational gradient in Puerto Rico" Ecological Bulletins, v.54, 2013, p.101.

Cusack, D. F., W. W. Chou. W. H. Yang. M. E. Harmon, and W. L. Silver "Controls on long-term root and leaf litter decomposition in neotropical forests" Global Change Biology, v.15, 2009, p.1339-1355.

Cusack, D. F., W. W. Chou. W. H. Yang. M. E. Harmon, and W. L. Silver "Controls on long-term root and leaf litter decomposition in neotropical forests" Global Change Biology, v.15, 2009, p.1339-1355. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01781.x 

Lugo, A.E. "The ecosystems of the Luquillo Mountains" Acta Científica, v.19, 2005, p.3-6.

Marin-Spiotta, W. L. Silver, C. W. Swanston, and R. Ostertag "Soil organic matter dynamics during 80 years of reforestation of tropical pastures" Global Change Biology, v.15, 2009, p.1584-1597. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01805.x 

Marin-Spiotta, W. L. Silver, C. W. Swanston, and R. Ostertag "Soil carbon gain and loss during 80 years of reforestation of tropical pastures" Global Change Biology, v.15, 2009, p.1587-1594.

Harmon, M. E., W. L. Silver, B. Fasth, H. Chen, W. J. Parton, and LIDET "Long-term patterns of mass loss during the decomposition of leaf and fine root litter: An intersite comparison" Global Change Biology, v.15, 2009, p.1320-1338.

Lugo, A.E.; Domínguez Cristóbal, C.; Méndez Irizarry, N. "Efectos del huracán Georges en el crecimiento de árboles en un bosque secundario en el interior de Puerto Rico" Acta Científica, v.19, 2005, p.23-40.

Lugo, A.E.; Dominguez Cristobal, C.; Mendez Irizarry, N. "Efectos del huracan Georges en el crecimiento de arboles en un bosque secundario en el interior de Puerto Rico" Acta Científica, v.19, 2005, p.23-40.

Li, Y., M. Xu, and X. M. Zou "Heterotrophic soil respiration in relation to environmental factors and microbial biomass in two tropical wet forests" Plant and Soil, v.281, 2006, p.193-201.

McGroddy, M. E., W. L. Silver, R. Cosme de Oliveira Jr., W. Zamboni de Mello, and M. Keller "The fate of phosphorus in a highly weathered Amazonian forest ecosystem: biological versus geochemical cycling" JGR-Biogeosciences, v.113, 2008, p.. doi:10.1029/2008JG000756 

McGroddy, M. E., W. L. Silver, R. Cosme de Oliveira Jr., W. Zamboni de Mello, and M. Keller "Retention of phosphorus in highly weathered soils under a lowland Amazonian forest ecosystem" Journal of Geophysical Research, v.113, 2008, p.. doi:10.1029/2008JG000756 

Shiels, A.B. "Leaf litter decomposition and substrate chemistry of early successional species on landslides in Puerto Rico" Biotropica, v., 2006, p..

Ostertag, R., E. Marin-Spiotta, W. L. Silver, and J. Shulten "Litterfall and decomposition in relation to soil carbon pools along a secondary forest chronosequence in Puerto Rico" Ecosystems, v.11, 2008, p.701-714.

Ostertag, R., E. Marin-Spiotta, W. L. Silver, and J. Shulten "Litterfall and decomposition in relation to soil carbon pools along a secondary forest chronosequence in Puerto Rico" Ecosystems, v.11, 2008, p.701-714. doi:10.1007/s10021-008-9152-1 

Zalamea, M.; González, G.; Ping, C.L.; Michaelson, G. "Soil organic dynamics under decaying wood in a subtropical wet forest: effect of tree species and decay stage" Plant and Soil, v.296, 2007, p.173-185.

Lodge, D.J., T. Læssøe, M.C. Aime and T.W. Henkel "Montane and cloud forest specialists among neotropical Xylaria species" North American Fungi, v.3, 2008, p.193-213.

Yang, W. H., K. A. Weber, and W. L. Silver "Nitrogen loss from soil via anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction" Nature GeoScience, v.5, 2012, p.538.

Templer, P. M., W. L. Silver, J. Pett-Ridge, and M. K. Firestone "Plant and microbial controls on nitrogen retention and loss in tropical forest soils" Ecology, v.89, 2008, p.3030-3040.

Shiels, A.B, L.R. Walker, and D.B. Thompson "Organic matter inputs create variable resource patches on Puerto Rican landslides" Plant Ecology, v., 2006, p..

Teh, Y. A., E. A. Dubinski, W. L. Silver, and C. M. Carlson "Suppression of methanogenesis by dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in tropical rain forest soils: implications for ecosystem methane flux" Global Change Biology, v.14, 2008, p.413.

Chau, M., L.R. Walker and K. Mehltreter "An invasive tree fern alters soil and plant nutrient dynamics in Hawaii. Biological Invasions 15: 355-370." Biological Invasions, v.15, 2013, p.335.

Marin-Spiotta, E., C. W. Swanston, M. S. Torn, W. L. Silver, and S. D. Burton "Chemical and mineralogical control of soil carbon storage during tropical reforestation" Geoderma, v.143, 2008, p.49.

Marin-Spiotta, E., C. W. Swanston, M. S. Torn, W. L. Silver, and S. D. Burton "Chemical and mineralogical control of soil carbon storage during tropical reforestation" Geoderma, v.143, 2008, p.49-62.

Adair, E. C. W.J. Parton, S.J. DelGrosso, W.L. Silver, S.A. Hall, M.E. Harmon, and S.C. Hart "A simple three pool model accurately describes patterns of long term, global decomposition in the Long Term Intersite Decomposition Experiment Team (LIDET) data set" Global Change Biology, v.14, 2008, p.2636.

Adair, E. C. W.J. Parton, S.J. DelGrosso, W.L. Silver, S.A. Hall, M.E. Harmon, and S.C. Hart "A simple three pool model accurately describes patterns of long term, global decomposition in the Long Term Intersite Decomposition Experiment Team (LIDET) data set" Global Change Biology, v.14, 2008, p.2636-2660. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01674.x 

Cross, W.F., A.P. Covich, T.A. Crowl, J.P. Benstead, and A. Ramirez "Secondary production, longevity, and consumption rates of freshwater shrimps in two tropical streams with contrasting geomorphology and foodweb structure" Freshwater Biology, v.53, 2008, p.2504-2519. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2008.02078.x 

Jones, J.A., I.F. Creed, K.L. Hatcher, R.J. Warren, M.B. Adams, M.H. Benson, E. Boose, W.A. Brown, J.L. Campbell, A.P. Covich, D.W. Clow, C.N. Dahm, K.Elder, C.R. Ford, N.B. Grimm, D.L. Henshaw, K.L. Larson, E.S. Miles, K.M. Miles, S.D. Sebestyen, A.T. Sp "Ecosystem Processes and Human Influences Regulate Streamflow Response to Climate Change at Long-Term Ecological Research Sites" . BioScience, v.62, 2012, p.390.

Balvanera, P., M. Uriarte, L. Almeida-Leñero, A. Altesor, F. DeClerk, T. Gardner, J. Hall, A. Lara, P. Laterra, M. Peña-Claros, D. M. Silva Matos, L. Romero-Duque, A. L. Vogt, L.F. Arreola, A.P. Caro-Borrero, F. Gallego, M. Jain, C. Little, R. de Oliveira "Ecosystem Service Research in Latin America: The State of the Art" Ecosystem Services, v.2, 2012, p.56.

Liptzin, D. and W. L. Silver. "Effects of carbon additions on iron reduction and phosphorus availability in a humid tropical forest soil." Soil Biology and Biochemistry, v.41, 2009, p.1969.

Blanco J. F. & F. N. Scatena "The spatial arrangement of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) during upstream migration in a split-channel" River Research and Applications, v., 2007, p..

Hopkinson, C., A. E. Lugo, M. Alber, A. P. Covich, S. J. Van Bloem "Forecasting effects of sea-level rise and windstorms on coastal and inland ecosystems" Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, v.6, 2008, p.255-263.

Yang, X. D., M. Warren, X. M. Zou "Fertilization responses of soil litter fauna and litter quantity, quality, and turnover in low and high elevation forests of Puerto Rico." Applied Soil Ecology, v.37, 2007, p.63-71.

Blanco J. F. & F. N. Scatena "The spatial arrangement of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) during upstream migration in a split-channel" River Research and Applications, v.22, 2007, p.1-11.

Kikkert, D., Crowl, T.A. & Covich, A.P. "Upstream migration of amphidromous shrimps in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico: Temporal patterns and environmental cues" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.28, 2009, p.233-246. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1899/08-019.1 

Thorn, R.G, J.-M. Moncalvo, S.A. Redhead, D.J. Lodge and M.P. Martin "A new poroid species of Resupinatus from Puerto Rico, with a reassessment of the cyphelloid genus, Stigmatolemma" Mycologia, v., 2006, p..

Cusack, D. F., W. W. Chou. W. H. Yang. M. E. Harmon, and W. L. Silver "Controls on long-term root and leaf litter decomposition in neotropical forests" Global Change Biology, v.15, 2009, p.1339.

Porter, A.L., J. Garner and T.A. Crowl "The RCN (Research Coordination Network) experiment: Evidence of the relationship between funded interdisciplinary networking and scholarly impact" BioScience, v.62, 2012, p.282.

J. Thompson, J., A. Lugo and J. Thomlinson "Land use history, hurricane disturbance and the fate of introduced species in subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico" Plant Ecology, v.192, 2007, p.289.

Marin-Spiotta, W. L. Silver, C. W. Swanston, and R. Ostertag "Soil carbon gain and loss during 80 years of reforestation of tropical pastures" Global Change Biology, v.15, 2009, p.1587.

Harmon, M. E., W. L. Silver, B. Fasth, H. Chen, W. J. Parton, & LIDET "Long-term patterns of mass loss during the decomposition of leaf and fine root litter: An intersite comparison" Global Change Biology, v.15, 2009, p.1320.

Harmon, M. E., W. L. Silver, B. Fasth, H. Chen, W. J. Parton, & LIDET "Long-term patterns of mass loss during the decomposition of leaf and fine root litter: An intersite comparison" Global Change Biology, v.15, 2009, p.1320-1338.

DeAngelis, K. M., J. L. Foutney, S. Borglin, W. L. Silver, B. A. Simmons, and T. Hazen "Anaerobic decomposition of switchgrass by tropical soil-derived feedstock adapted consortia" mBio, v., 2012, p.. doi:10.1128/ mBio.00249-11 

McGroddy, M. E., W. L. Silver, R. Cosme de Oliveira Jr., W. Zamboni de Mello, and M. Keller "The fate of phosphorus in a highly weathered Amazonian forest ecosystem: biological versus geochemical cycling" JGR-Biogeosciences, v.113, 2008, p.. doi:doi:10.1029/2008JG000756 

Zou, X.M., B. Arandes-Pérez, D. Capó-Ramos, J. Gutiérrez-Santiago, and M. Rosario-Santiago "Comparisons of earthworm community structure between an active pasture and an adjacent tropical wet forest" Caribbean Journal of Science, v., 2007, p..

Ostertag, R., E. Marin-Spiotta, W. L. Silver, and J. Shulten "Litterfall and decomposition in relation to soil carbon pools along a secondary forest chronosequence in Puerto Rico" Ecosystems, v.11, 2008, p.701.

Ostertag, R., E. Marin-Spiotta, W. L. Silver, and J. Shulten "Litterfall and decomposition in relation to soil carbon pools along a secondary forest chronosequence in Puerto Rico" Ecosystems, v.11, 2008, p.701.

Templer, P. M., W. L. Silver, J. Pett-Ridge, and M. K. Firestone "Plant and microbial controls on nitrogen retention and loss in tropical forest soils" Ecology, v.89, 2008, p.3030.

Teh, Y. A., E. A. Dubinski, W. L. Silver, and C. M. Carlson "Suppression of methanogenesis by dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in tropical rain forest soils: implications for ecosystem methane flux" Global Change Biology, v.14, 2008, p.413.

Blanco, J. F. & F. N. Scatena "The distribution of a diadromous gastropod in Puerto Rico streams: hierarchical contribution of river-ocean connectivity, water chemistry, hydraulics and substrate." Journal of the North American Benthological Society, special section on tropical streams, v., 2006, p..

Marin-Spiotta, E., C. W. Swanston, M. S. Torn, W. L. Silver, and S. D. Burton "Chemical and mineralogical control of soil carbon storage during tropical reforestation" Geoderma, v.143, 2008, p.49.

Cao, M., X. M. Zou, M. Warren, H. Zhu "Introduction: The tropical forests in Xishuangbanna of China" Biotropica, v., 2006, p..

Brown, C., D.F.R.P. Burslem, J.B. Illian, C.L. Bao, W. Brockelman, M. Cao, H.S. Dattaraja, C.V.S. Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. Gunatilleke, J. Huang, A.R. Kassim, J. Lian, L. Lin, K. Ma, X. Mi, A. Nathalang, S. Noor, S. Pulla, R. Sukumar, I.F. Sun, H.S. Suresh, "Multi-species coexistence in tropical rainforests: spatial signals of topographic niche differentiation increase with environmental heterogeneity" Proc Royal Society Series B, v.280, 2013, p.20130502.

Adair, E. C. W.J. Parton, S.J. DelGrosso, W.L. Silver, S.A. Hall, M.E. Harmon, and S.C. Hart "A simple three pool model accurately describes patterns of long term, global decomposition in the Long Term Intersite Decomposition Experiment Team (LIDET) data set" Global Change Biology, v.14, 2008, p.2636.

Blanco, Juan F., Alonso Ramirez, and Frederick N. Scatena "Las quebradas del parque nacional natural gorgona dentro del contexto global: introduccion al numero especial" Actu Biol, v.31, 2009, p.105.

Blanco, Juan F. "The Hydroclimatology of Gorgona Island: Seasonal and Enso-related Patternsa" Actu Biol, v.31, 2009, p.111.

Martinuzzi, S., W.A. Gould, A.E. Lugo, and E. Medina "Conversion and recovery of Puerto Rican mangroves: 200 years of change" Forest Ecology and Management, v.257, 2010, p.75.

Brandeis, T.J., E. Helmer, H. Marcano Vega, and A.E. Lugo "Climate shapes the novel plant communities that form after deforestation in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands" Forest Ecology and Management, v.258, 2010, p.1704.

Heartsill-Scalley, T., T.A. Crowl and J. Thompson "Tree species distributions in relation to stream distance in mid-montane wet forest, Puerto Rico" Caribbean Journal of Science, v.45, 2009, p.52-63.

Zou, X.M., B. Arandes-Perez, D. Capo-Ramos, J. Gutierrez-Santiago, and M. Rosario-Santiago "Comparisons of earthworm community structure between an active pasture and an adjacent tropical wet forest" Caribbean Journal of Science, v.43, 2007, p.311-314.

Smith, K. L., I. Corujo-Flores, and C. M. Pringle "A comparison of the current and historical fish assemblages in a Caribbean island estuary: Conservation value of historical data" Aquatic Conservation, v.18, 2008, p.993-1004. doi:10.1002/aqc.920 

Chazdon, R.L., C.A. Peres, D. Dent, D. Sheil, A.E. Lugo, D. Lamb, N.E. Stork, and S.E. Miller "The potential for species conservation in tropical secondary forests" Conservation Biology, v.23, 2010, p.1406.

Chazdon, R.L., C.A. Peres, D. Dent, D. Sheil, A.E. Lugo, D. Lamb, N.E. Stork, and S.E. Miller "The potential for species conservation in tropical secondary forests" Conservation Biology, v.23, 2010, p.1406.

Willig, M.R., C.P. Bloch and S.J. Presley "Experimental decoupling of canopy opening and debris addition on tropical gastropod populations and communities" Forest Ecology and Management, v.332, 2014, p.103.

Lugo, A.E. "The emerging era of novel tropical forests" Biotropica, v.41, 2010, p.589.

Crowl, T.A., T.O. Crist, R.R. Parmenter, G. Belovsky and A.E. Lugo "The spread of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change in an increasingly connected world" Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v.6, 2008, p.238-246.

Cook, B. D., C. M. Pringle and J. M. Hughes "Molecular evidence for of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change in an increasingly connected world" Molecular Ecology, v.17, 2008, p.1066-75.

Heartsill Scalley, T., F.N. Scatena, A.E. Lugo, S. Moya, and C.R. Estrada Ruiz "Changes in structure, composition, and nutrients during 15 yr of hurricane-induced succession in a subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico" Biotropica, v.42, 2010, p.455.

Vance Chalcraft, H.D., M.R. Willig, S.B. Cox, A.E. Lugo, and F.N. Scatena "Relationship between aboveground biomass and multiple measures of biodiversity in subtropical forest of Puerto Rico" Biotropica, v.42, 2010, p.290.

Vance Chalcraft, H.D., M.R. Willig, S.B. Cox, A.E. Lugo, and F.N. Scatena "Relationship between aboveground biomass and multiple measures of biodiversity in subtropical forest of Puerto Rico" Biotropica, v.42, 2010, p.290-299. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2009.00600.x 

Zalamea, M., and G. González "Leaf Fall Phenology in a Subtropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico: from species to community patterns." Biotropica, v., 2008, p..

Abelleira Martinez, O.J., M.A. Rodriguez, I. Rosario, N. Soto, A. Lopez, and A.E. Lugo "Structure and species composition of novel forests dominated by an introduced species in northcentral Puerto Rico" New Forests, v.39, 2010, p.1.

Peters, D.P.C., C.M. Laney, S.L. Collins, C.T. Driscoll, P.M. Groffman, J.M. Grove, A.K. Knapp, T.K Kratz N.D. Ohman, R.B. Waide, and J. Yao "Long-term trends in ecological systems: a basis for understanding responses to global change" USDA Agricultural Research Service Publication, v., 2010, p..

Blanco, Juan F. "Stream-Physico-Chemistry at Gorgona Island Natural National Park, Tropical Eastern Pacific" Actu Biol, v.31, 2009, p.123.

Cook, B. D., C. M. Pringle, and J. M. Hughes "Phylogeography of an island endemic: the Puerto Rican freshwater crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons" Journal of Heredity, v.99, 2008, p.157-164.

Shiels, A.B., and L.R. Walker "Landslides cause spatial and temporal gradients at multiple scales in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico" Ecological Bulletins, v.54, 2013, p.211.

Walker, L.R., A.B. Shiels, P.J. Bellingham, A. D. Sparrow, N. Fetcher, F.H. Landau, and D.J. Lodge "Changes in abiotic influences on seed plants and ferns during 18 years of primary succession on Puerto Rican landslides. Journal of Ecology 101:650-661." Journal of Ecology, v., 2013, p.650.

Adl, Sina M., B.S. Leander, A.G.B. Simpson, J.M. Archibald, O.R. Anderson, D. Bass, S.S. Bowser, G. Brugerolle, M.A. Farmer, S. Karpov, M. Kolisko, C.E. Lane, D.J. Lodge, D.G. Mann, R. Meisterfeld, L. Mendoza, O. Moestrup, S.E. Mozley-Standridge, A.V. Smi "Diversity, nomenclature and taxonomy of protists" Systematic Biology, v., 2007, p..

Shiels, A.B, L.R. Walker, and D.B. Thompson "Organic matter inputs create variable resource patches on Puerto Rican landslides" Plant Ecology, v.184, 2006, p.223-236.

Crook, K. E., C. M. Pringle, and M. C. Freeman "A method to assess bi-directional riverine connectivity in tropical streams dominated by migratory biota" Aquatic Conservation, v.19, 2009, p.714-723. doi:10.1002/aqc.1025 

Longo-Sanchez, Magnolia C., and Juan F. Blanco "On the filters determining the distribution and abundance of diadromous and non-diadromous macroinvertebrates in each hierarchical level of the fluvial landscape of islands" Actu Biol, v.31, 2009, p.179.

Cao, M., X. M. Zou, M. Warren, H. Zhu "Introduction: The tropical forests in Xishuangbanna of China" Biotropica, v.38, 2006, p.306-309.

Gomez-Aguirre, Ana M., Longo-Sanchez, Magnolia C. and Blanco, Juan F. "Macroinvertebrate assemblages in gorgona island streams: spatial patterns during two contrasting hydrologic periods" Actu Biol, v.31, 2009, p.161.

Small, G., C.M. Pringle, F.J. Triska, J.H. Duff, A.P. Jackman, M. Hidalgo, A. Ramírez & M. Ardón "The dynamics of phosphorus retention during an eight-year p-addition in a neotropical headwater stream" Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol, v.30, 2008, p..

Valencia-G., Sandra M., Perez-Z., Giovanny A., Lizarazo-M., Pilar X., et al "Spatio-Temporal patterns of structure and composition of leaf litter in streams of the GORGONA Natural National Park" Actu Biol, v.31, 2009, p.197.

Small, G., C.M. Pringle, F.J. Triska, J.H. Duff, A.P. Jackman, M. Hidalgo, A. Ramirez & M. Ardon "The dynamics of phosphorus retention during an eight-year p-addition in a neotropical headwater stream" Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol, v.30, 2008, p.551-554.

Blanco, J. F. & F. N. Scatena "The distribution of a diadromous gastropod in Puerto Rico streams: hierarchical contribution of river-ocean connectivity, water chemistry, hydraulics and substrate." Journal of the North American Benthological Society, special section on tropical streams, v.25, 2006, p.82-98.

Blanco J. F. & Scatena "Floods, habitat hydraulics and upstream migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in Northeastern Puerto Rico" Caribbean Journal of Science, v., 2005, p..

Willig, M.R., S.J. Presley, and C.P. Bloch "Long-term dynamics of tropical walking sticks in response to multiple large-scale and intense disturbances" Oecologia, v.165, 2010, p.357-368.

Benstead, J.P., W.F. Cross, J.G. March, W.H. McDowell, A. Ramirez and A.P. Covich "Biotic and abiotic controls on the ecosystem significance of consumer excretion in two contrasting tropical streams" Freshwater Biology, v.55, 2010, p..

González, G., E. Espinosa, Z. Liu, and X.M. Zou "A fluorescent marking and re-count technique using the invasive earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta)" Caribbean Journal of Science, v., 2007, p..

Benstead, J.P., W.F. Cross, J.G. March, W.H. McDowell, A. Ramirez and A.P. Covich "Biotic and abiotic controls on the ecosystem significance of consumer excretion in two contrasting tropical streams" Freshwater Biology, v.55, 2010, p.2047-2061. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2010.02461.x 

Heartsill-Scalley T., Scatena F.N., Estrada C., McDowell W.H., Lugo A.E. "Disturbance and long-term patterns of rainfall and throughfall nutrient fluxes in a subtropical forest in Puerto Rico" Journal of Hydrology, v., 2007, p..

Covich, A.P., T A. Crowl, C. L. Hein, M.J. Townsend and W. H. McDowell "Importance of geomorphic barriers to predatorâ??prey interactions in river networks" Freshwater Biology, v.54, 2009, p.450.

Covich, A.P., T A. Crowl, C. L. Hein, M.J. Townsend and W. H. McDowell "Importance of geomorphic barriers to predator-prey interactions in river networks" Freshwater Biology, v.54, 2009, p.450-465.

Cross, W.F., A. Ramirez, A. Santana, & L. Silvestrini "Toward Separating the Relative Importance of Invertebrate Consumption and Bioturbation in Puerto Rican Streams" Biotropica, v.40, 2008, p.477-484.

Cross, W.F., A. Ramírez, A. Santana, & L. Silvestrini "Toward Separating the Relative Importance of Invertebrate Consumption and Bioturbation in Puerto Rican Streams" Biotropica, v.40, 2008, p.477?484.

Ramírez, A. "Biodiversidad de insectos acuáticos y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas" Entomología Acuática Mexicana: estado actual de conocimiento y aplicación, v., 2007, p.. doi:ISBN: 978-968-5536-89-9 

Blanco J. F. & Scatena "Floods, habitat hydraulics and upstream migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in Northeastern Puerto Rico" Caribbean Journal of Science, v.41, 2005, p.55-74.

Blanco J.F., Scatena F.N. "The Spatial Arrangement of Neritina Virginea during upstream migration in a split-channel reach" River Research and Applications, v.22, 2007, p.1-11.

Ramírez, A. "Biodiversidad de insectos acuaticos y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas" Entomología Acuática Mexicana: estado actual de conocimiento y aplicación, v., 2007, p.. doi:ISBN: 978-968-5536-89-9 

Kikkert, D.A., T.A. Crowl and A.P. Covich "Upstream migration of amphidromous shrimp in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico: temporal patterns and environmental cues" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.28, 2009, p.233.

Barbara A. Richardson, Michael J. Richardson, Grizelle Gonzalez, Aaron B. Shiels and Diane S. Srivastava "A Canopy Trimming Experiment in Puerto Rico: The Response of Litter Invertebrate Communities to Canopy Loss and Debris Deposition in a Tropical Forest Subject to Hurricanes" Ecosystems, v.13, 2010, p.286.

Page, T. J., K. S. Torati, B. D. Cook, A. Binderup, C. M. Pringle, S. Reuschl, C.D Schubart, and J. M. Hughes "Invertebres Sans Frontieres: large scales of connectivity of freshwater animals between Caribbean islands" Biotropica, v., 2013, p.. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2012.00900.x. 

Adl, Sina M., B.S. Leander, A.G.B. Simpson, J.M. Archibald, O.R. Anderson, D. Bass, S.S. Bowser, G. Brugerolle, M.A. Farmer, S. Karpov, M. Kolisko, C.E. Lane, D.J. Lodge, D.G. Mann, R. Meisterfeld, L. Mendoza, O. Moestrup, S.E. Mozley-Standridge, A.V. Smi "Diversity, nomenclature and taxonomy of protists" Systematic Biology, v.56, 2007, p.1-6.

Murphy, C. M. , G. Gonzalez, and J. Belen "Ordinal Abundance and Richness of Millipedes (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) in a Subtropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico" Acta Cientifica, v.22, 2008, p.57-65.

Zalamea, M., and G. Gonzalez "Substrate-Induced Respiration in Puerto Rican Soils: minimum glucose amendment" Acta Cientifica, v.21, 2007, p.11-17.

D.S. Srivastava, M.K. Trzcinski, B.A. Richardson, B. Gilbert "Why are predators more sensitive to habitat size than their prey? Insights from bromeliad-insect food webs" The American Naturalist, v.172, 2008, p.761-771. doi:10.1086/592868 

Gould, W.A., G. Gonzalez, D.A. Walker, C.L. Ping "Commentary. Integrating Research, Education, and Traditional Knowledge in Ecology: a Case Study of Biocomplexity in Arctic Ecosystems" Arctic, Alpine and Antarctic Research, v.42, 2010, p.379-384.

R. Wagner, B.A. Richardson, M.J. Richardson "A new psychodid species from Puerto Rican tank bromeliads" Studies of the Neotropical Fauna and the Environment, v.43, 2008, p.209-216. doi:10.1080/01650520802288173 

Zou, X. M., M. Cao, and M. Warren "The Xishuangbanna Tropical Forests in China. Special Section Editors." Biotropica, v., 2006, p..

Walker, L.R., A.B. Shiels, P.J. Bellingham, A.D. Sparrow, N. Fetcher, F.H. Landau, and D.J. Lodge. "Changes in abiotic influences on seed plants and ferns during 18 years of primary succession on Puerto Rican landslides" Journal of Ecology, v.101, 2013, p.650.

Zalamea, M., and G. Gonzalez "Leaf Fall Phenology in a Subtropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico: from species to community patterns." Biotropica, v.40, 2008, p.295-304.

González, G. "Earthworms as Invasive Species in Latin America -- the 2nd Latin American Meeting of Oligochaeta (Earthworm) Ecology and Taxonomy (Editorial)" Caribbean Journal of Science, v., 2006, p..

Cao M.; X. Zou; M. Warren; and H. Zhu "Tropical Forests of Xishuangbanna, China" Biotropica, v.38, 2006, p.306-309. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2006.00146.x 

A.S. Pike, F.N. Scatena, E.E. Wohl "Longitudinal trends in stream channel morphology in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico" Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v.382, 2008, p.72-87.

Crook K.E., Scatena F.N., Pringle C.M. "Water Withdrawn from the Luquillo Experimental Forest, 2004" USDA Forest Service General Technical Report IITF-GTR-34, v., 2007, p..

Lodge, D.J., S.A. Cantrell and G. González "Effects of canopy opening and debris deposition on fungal connectivity, phosphorus movement between litter cohorts and mass loss" Forest Ecology and Management, v.332, 2014, p.11.

Zimmerman, J.K., L. S. Comita, M. Uriarte, N. Brokaw, and J. Thompson "Patch dynamics and community metastability of a tropical forest: Compound effects of natural disturbance and human land use" Landscape Ecology, v.25, 2010, p.1099.

Comita, L., J. Thompson, M. Uriarte, I. Jonckheere, and J.K. Zimmerman "Interactive effects of land use history and natural disturbance on seedling dynamics in a subtropical forest" Ecological Applications, v.20, 2010, p.1270.

DeAngelis, K. M., D. Chivian, J. L. Fortney, A. P. Arkin, B. Simmons, T. C. Hazen, and W. L. Silver "Changes in microbial dynamics during long term decomposition in tropical forests" Soil Biology and Biochemistry, v.66, 2013, p.60.

Greathouse, E.A., C.M. Pringle, W.H. McDowell, and J.G. Holmquist "Indirect upstream effects of dams: consequences of migratory consumer extirpation in Puerto Rico" Ecological Applications, v., 2006, p..

Forero-Montaña, J, J.K. Zimmerman, and J. Thompson "Population structure, growth rates, and spatial distribution of two dioecious tree species in a wet forest in Puerto Rico" Journal of Tropical Ecology, v.26, 2010, p.433.

Forero-Montana, J, J.K. Zimmerman, and J. Thompson "Population structure, growth rates, and spatial distribution of two dioecious tree species in a wet forest in Puerto Rico" Journal of Tropical Ecology, v.26, 2010, p.433.

Canham, C.D., J. Thompson, J.K. Zimmerman, and M. Uriarte "Variation in susceptibility to hurricane damage as a function of storm intensity in Puerto Rican tree species" Biotropica, v.42, 2010, p.87.

Cusack, D.F., W. Silver, and W.H. McDowell "Biological nitrogen fixation in two tropical forests: ecosystem-level patterns and effects of nitrogen fertilization" Ecosystems, v., 2009, p.. doi:10.1007/s10021-009-9290-0 

Cusack, D.F., W. Silver, and W.H. McDowell "Biological nitrogen fixation in two tropical forests: ecosystem-level patterns and effects of nitrogen fertilization" Ecosystems, v.149, 2009, p.171. doi:10.1007/s10021-009-9290-0 

Bernot, M.J., D.J. Sobota, R.O. Hall, P.J. Mulholland, W.K. Dodds, J.R. Webster, J.L. Tank, L.R. Ashkenas, L. W. Cooper, C. N. Dahm, S. Findlay, S. V. Gregory, N. B. Grimm, S. K. Hamilton, S. L. Johnson, W. H. McDowell, J. L. Meyer, B. J. Peterson, et al "Inter-regional comparison of land-use effects on stream metabolism" Freshwater Biology, v., 2010, p.. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2010.02422.x 

Bernot, M.J., D.J. Sobota, R.O. Hall, P.J. Mulholland, W.K. Dodds, J.R. Webster, J.L. Tank, L.R. Ashkenas, L. W. Cooper, C. N. Dahm, S. Findlay, S. V. Gregory, N. B. Grimm, S. K. Hamilton, S. L. Johnson, W. H. McDowell, J. L. Meyer, B. J. Peterson, et al "Inter-regional comparison of land-use effects on stream metabolism" Freshwater Biology, v.55, 2010, p.1874-1890. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2010.02422.x 

Cusack, D. F. M. S. Torn, W. H. McDowell, and W. L. Silver "The Response of Heterotrophic Activity and Carbon Cycling to Nitrogen Additions and Warming in Two Tropical Soils" Global Change Biology, v.16, 2010, p.2555.

Walker, L.R., and A.B. Shiels "Post-disturbance erosion impacts carbon fluxes and plant succession on recent tropical landslides" Plant and Soil, v.313, 2008, p.205-216.

Greathouse, E.A., C.M. Pringle, W.H. McDowell, and J.G. Holmquist "Indirect upstream effects of dams: consequences of migratory consumer extirpation in Puerto Rico" Ecological Applications, v.16, 2006, p.134-152.

Waide, R. B., D. E. Comarazamy, J. E. Gonza?lez, C. A. S. Hall, A. E. Lugo, J. C. Luvall, D. J. Murphy, J. R. Orti?z-Zayas, N. D. Rami?rez-Beltran, F. N. Scatena and W. L. Silver "Climate variability at multiple spatial and temporal scales in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. In press" Ecological Bulletins, v.54, 2013, p..

Cusack, D. F. M. S. Torn, W. H. McDowell, and W. L. Silver "The Response of Heterotrophic Activity and Carbon Cycling to Nitrogen Additions and Warming in Two Tropical Soils" Global Change Biology, v.16, 2010, p.2555-2572. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02131.x 

Cusack, D. F., W. L. Silver, and W. H. McDowell "Effects of chronic nitrogen additions on above- and belowground carbon dynamics in two tropical forests" Biogechemistry, v., 2010, p.. doi:10.1007/s10533-010-9496-4 

Cusack, D. F., W. L. Silver, and W. H. McDowell "Effects of chronic nitrogen additions on above- and belowground carbon dynamics in two tropical forests" Biogechemistry, v.104, 2010, p.203-225. doi:10.1007/s10533-010-9496-4 

Shiels, A.B., C.A. West, L. Weiss, P.D. Klawinski and L.R. Walker "Soil factors predict initial plant colonization on Puerto Rican landslides" Plant Ecology, v.195, 2008, p.165-178.

Shiels, A.B., C.A. West, L. Weiss, P.D. Klawinski and L.R. Walker "Soil factors predict initial plant colonization on Puerto Rican landslides" Plant Ecology, v.195, 2008, p.165-178. doi:10.1007/s11258-007-9313-x 

Potter, J.D., W.H. McDowell, J.L. Merriam, B.J. Peterson, and S.M. Thomas "Denitrification and total nitrate uptake in streams of a tropical landscape" Ecological Applications, v.20, 2010, p.2104-2115.

Benstead, J.P, W.F. Cross, J.G. March, W.H. McDowell, A. Ramirez, and A.P. Covich "Biotic and abiotic controls on ecosystem significance of consumer excretion in two contrasting tropical streams" Freshwater Biology, v.55, 2010, p.2047. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2010.02461.x 

González, G., M.R. Willig, and R.B. Waide "Ecological gradient analyses in a tropical landscape: multiple perspectives and emerging themes" Ecological Bulletins, v.54, 2013, p.13.

Li, H., Y. Ma, T. M. Aide, and W. Liu "Past, present and future land-use in Xishuangbanna, China and the implications for carbon dynamics" Forest Ecology and Management, v.255, 2008, p.16-24.

Findlay, S.E.G., P.J. Mulholland, S.K. Hamilton, J.L. Tank, M.J. Bernot, A.J. Burgin,, C.L. Crenshaw, W.K. Dodds, N.B. Grimm, W.H. McDowell, J.D. Potter, D.J. Sobota "Cross-stream comparison of substrate-specific denitrification potential" Biogeochemistry, v.104, 2011, p.381-392. doi:DOI 10.1007/s10533-010-9512-8 

Findlay, S.E.G., P.J. Mulholland, S.K. Hamilton, J.L. Tank, M.J. Bernot, A.J. Burgin,, C.L. Crenshaw, W.K. Dodds, N.B. Grimm, W.H. McDowell, J.D. Potter, D.J. Sobota "Cross-stream comparison of substrate-specific denitrification potential" Biogeochemistry, v.104, 2011, p.381-392. doi:10.1007/s10533-010-9512-8 

Herrera- Montes, A., and N. Brokaw "Conservation value of tropical secondary forest: a herpetofaunal perspective" Biological Conservation, v.143, 2010, p.1414.

Ortíz-Zayas, J.R., E. Cuevas, O.L. Mayol-Bracero, L. Donoso, I. Trebs, D. Figueroa-Nieves, and W.H. McDowell "Urban influences on the nitrogen cycle in Puerto Rico" Biogeochemistry, v., 2006, p..

Ortiz-Zayas, J.R., E. Cuevas, O.L. Mayol-Bracero, L. Donoso, I. Trebs, D. Figueroa-Nieves, and W.H. McDowell "Urban influences on the nitrogen cycle in Puerto Rico" Biogeochemistry, v.79, 2006, p.. doi:10.1007/s10533-10006-19005-y 

Cook, B. D., S. Bernays, C. M. Pringle, and J. M. Hughes "Marine dispersal determines the genetic population structure of migratory stream fauna of Puerto Rico: evidence for island-scale population recovery processes" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.28, 2009, p.709.

Cook, B. D., C. M. Pringle and J. M. Hughes "Immigration history of amphidromous species on a Greater Antillean island" Journal of Biogeography, v., 2009, p..

Zimmerman, J.K.,S. Joseph Wright, S.J., Calder, O., Aponte Pagan, M. and Paton, S. "Flowering and fruiting phenologies of seasonal and aseasonal neotropical forests: the role of annual changes in irradiance" Journal of Tropical Ecology, v.23, 2007, p.231-251.

Swenson, N.G.., J. C. Stegen, S. J. Davies, D. L. Erickson, J. Forero-Montaña, A. H. Hurlbert, W. J. Kress, J. Thompson, M. Uriarte, S. J. Wright, and J. K. Zimmerman "Temporal Turnover in the Composition of Tropical Tree Communities: Functional Determinism and Phylogenetic Stochasticity" 93, v.93, 2012, p.490.

Crook, K. E., C. M. Pringle, and M. C. Freeman "A method to assess bi-directional riverine connectivity in tropical streams dominated by migratory biota" Aquatic Conservation, v.19, 2009, p.714.

Benstead, J.P, W.F. Cross, J.G. March, W.H. McDowell, A. Ramirez, A. Covich "Biotic and abiotic controls on ecosystem significance of consumer excretion in two contrasting tropical streams" Freshwater Biology, v., 2010, p..

Blanco, J.F., A. Ramirez, & F.N. Scatena "The streams of Gorgona Natural National Park within the global context: An introduction to the special issue" Actualidades Biologicas, v.31, 2009, p.105.

Ramirez, A., R. De Jesus-Crespo, D.M. Martino-Cardona, N. Martinez-Rivera, & S. Burgos-Caraballo "Urban streams in Puerto Rico: what can we learn from the tropics?" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.28, 2009, p.1070.

B A Richardson, S Borges, and M J Richardson "Differences between Epigeic Earthworm Populations in Tank Bromeliads from Puerto Rico and Dominica" Caribbean Journal of Science, v., 2006, p..

Thompson,J., Lugo,A.E., Thomlinson, J. "Land use history, hurricane disturbance and the fate of introduced species in a subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico" Plant Ecol, v.192, 2007, p.289-301.

Li, Y., M. Xu, and X. M. Zou "Effects of nutrient additions on ecosystem carbon cycle in a Puerto Rican tropical wet forest" Global Change Biology, v., 2006, p..

Wenger, S.J., A.H. Roy, C.R. Jackson, E.S. Bernhardt, T.L. Carter, S. Filoso, C.A. Gibson, W.C. Hession, S.S. Kausha, E. Martı, J.L. Meyer, M.A. Palmer, M.J. Paul, A.H. Purcell, A. Ramirez, A.D. Rosemond, K.A. Schofield, E.B. Sudduth & C.J. Walsh "Twenty-six key research questions in urban stream ecology: an assessment of the state of the science" Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v.28, 2009, p.1080.

Rudiger Wagner, Barbara A. Richardson, Michael J. Richardson "A New Psychodid Species from Saban Tank Bromeliads" Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, v.45, 2010, p.121-127. doi:10.1080/01650521.2010.514800 

Swenson, N.G., B.J. Enquist, J. Thompson, and J.K. Zimmerman "The influence of spatial and size scale on phylogenetic relatedness in tropical forest communities" Ecology, v.88, 2007, p.1770-1780.

Greathouse, E.A., C.M. Pringle, and W.H. McDowell "Do small-scale exclosure/enclosure experiments predict effects of large-scale extirpation of freshwater migratory fauna?" Oecologia, v., 2006, p..

Li, Y., M. Xu, and X. M. Zou "Effects of nutrient additions on ecosystem carbon cycle in a Puerto Rican tropical wet forest" Global Change Biology, v.12, 2006, p.284-29.

Greathouse, E.A., C.M. Pringle, and W.H. McDowell "Do small-scale exclosure/enclosure experiments predict effects of large-scale extirpation of freshwater migratory fauna?" Oecologia, v.149, 2006, p.709-. doi:10.1007/s00442-00006-00472-00446 

Gonzalez, G., E. Espinosa, Z. Liu, and X.M. Zou "A fluorescent marking and re-count technique using the invasive earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta)" Caribbean Journal of Science, v.42, 2007, p.371-379.

Heartsill Scalley, F.N. Scatena, A.E. Lugo, S. Moya, and C. Estrada "Changes in the Structure, Composition and Nutrients during Hurricane-Induced Succession in a Subtropical Wet Forest" Biotropica, v., 2010, p.. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2009.00609.x 

Heartsill Scalley, F.N. Scatena, A.E. Lugo, S. Moya, and C. Estrada "Changes in Structure, Composition, and Nutrients During 15 Yr of Hurricane-Induced Succession in a Subtropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico" Biotropica, v.42, 2010, p.455-463. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2009.00609.x 

Pike, A.S., and F.N. Scatena "Riparian indicators of flow frequency in a tropical montane stream network" Journal of Hydrology, v.382, 2010, p.72.

Chave J.,R. Condit, H.C. Muller-Landau, S.C. Thomas, P.S. Ashton, 30 other authors, Jill Thompson, J.K. Zimmerman, and E. Losos "Assessing evidence for a pervasive alteration in tropical tree communities" PLoS Biology, v.6, 2008, p.455-462.

Pike, A.S. , F.N. Scatena, and E.E. Wohl "Lithological and fluvial controls on the geomorphology of tropical montane stream channels in Puerto Rico" Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v., 2010, p.. doi:10.1002/esp.1978 

Pike, A.S. , F.N. Scatena, and E.E. Wohl "Lithological and fluvial controls on the geomorphology of tropical montane stream channels in Puerto Rico" Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v.35, 2010, p.1402-1417. doi:10.1002/esp.1978 

Lenart M.T., D.A Falk, F.N. Scatena, and W.R. Osterkamp "Estimating soil turnover from tree uprooting during hurricanes in Puerto Rico" Forest Ecology and Management, v.259, 2010, p.1076. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.12.014 

Lenart M.T., D.A Falk, F.N. Scatena, and W.R. Osterkamp "Estimating soil turnover from tree uprooting during hurricanes in Puerto Rico" Forest Ecology and Management, v.259, 2010, p.1076-1084. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.12.014 

Vance-Chalcraft H.D., M.R. Willig, S.B. Cox, A.E. Lugo, and F.N. Scatena "Relationship Between Aboveground Biomass and Multiple Measures of Biodiversity in a Subtropical Forest of Puerto Rico" Biotropica, v., 2009, p.. doi:1-10:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2009.00600.x 

Wen, S., N. Fetcher and J.K. Zimmerman "Acclimation of tropical tree species to hurricane disturbance: ontogenetic differences" Tree Physiology, v.28, 2008, p.935-946.

Wen, S., N. Fetcher and J.K. Zimmerman "Acclimation of tropical tree species to hurricane disturbance: ontogenetic differences" Tree Physiology, v.28, 2008, p.935?946.

Huang, C.Y., G. González and P. F. Hendrix "The re-colonization ability of a native earthworm species, Estherella spp, in Puerto Rican forests and pastures" Caribbean Journal of Science, v., 2006, p..

Zimmerman, J.K. ,J.A. Hogan, A.B. Shiels, J.E. Bithorn, S.M. Carmona and N. Brokaw "Seven-year responses of trees to experimental hurricane effects in a tropical rainforest, Puerto Rico" Forest Ecology and Management, v.332, 2014, p.64.

Muscarella, R., M. Uriarte, J. Forero-Montaña, L. S. Comita, N. G. Swenson, J. Thompson, C. Nytch, I. Jonckheere, and J.K. Zimmerman "Exploring the mechanisms behind life history tradeoffs during the seed-to-seedling transition for tropical trees and lianas" Journal of Ecology, v.101, 2013, p.171.

Heartsill-Scalley, T., F.N. Scatena, C. Estrada, W.H. McDowell, and A.E. Lugo "Disturbance and long-term patterns of rainfall and throughfall nutrient fluxes in a subtropical forest in Puerto Rico" J. Hydrology, v., 2007, p..

Walker, Lawrence R. and Roger del Moral "Lessons from primary succession for restoration of severely damaged habitats" Applied Vegetation Science, v.12, 2009, p.55-67.

Sharpe, J. M. "Responses of the mangrove fern Acrostichum danaeifolium Langsd. & Fisch. (Pteridaceae, Pteridophyta) to disturbances resulting from increased soil salinity and Hurricane Georges at the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Puerto Rico" Wetlands Ecology and Management, v.18, 2010, p.57.

Restrepo, C., L.R. Walker, A.B. Shiels, R. Bussman, L. Claessens, S. Fisch, P. Lozano, G. Negi, L. Paolini, G. Poveda, C. Ramos-Scharron, M. Richter, and E. Velazquez "Landsliding and its multi-scale influences on mountainscapes" BioScience, v.59, 2009, p.685.

Yang, X. D., and X. M. Zou "Soil fauna and leaf litter decomposition in tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China: Effects of mesh size of litterbags" Acta Ecologica Sinica, v., 2006, p..

Presley, S.J., and M.R. Willig "Composition and structure of Caribbean bat (Chiroptera) assemblages: effects of inter-island distance, area, elevation, and hurricane-induced disturbance" Global Ecology and Biogeography, v.17, 2008, p.747-757. doi:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2008.00412.x 

Rauber, Robert M., Bjorn Stevens, Jennifer Davison, Sabine Goeke, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, David Rogers, et al "In the Driver?s Seat ? RICO and Education" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v., 2007, p..

Richardson, B.A., M.J. Richardson, G. Gonzalez, A.B. Shiels, and D.S. Srivastava "A canopy trimming experiment in Puerto Rico: The response of litter invertebrate communities to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest subject to hurricanes" Ecosystems, v.11, 2010, p.286.

Shiels, A.B., J.K. Zimmerman, D.C. Garcia-Montiel, I. Jonckheere, J. Holm, D. Horton, and N. Brokaw "Plant responses to simulated hurricane impacts in a subtropical wet forest, Puerto Rico" Journal of Ecology, v.98, 2010, p.659.

Walker, L.R., F.H. Landau, E. Velazquez, A.B. Shiels, and A.D. Sparrow "Early successional woody plants facilitate and ferns inhibit forest development on Puerto Rican landslides" Journal of Ecology, v.98, 2010, p.625.

Shiels, A.B. "Leaf litter decomposition and substrate chemistry of early successional species on landslides in Puerto Rico" Biotropica, v.38, 2006, p.348-353.

Robert M. Rauber, Bjorn Stevens, Harry T. Ochs III, Charles Knight, B. A. Albrecht, A.M. Blyth, et al "Rain in (Shallow) Cumulus over the Ocean?The RICO Campaign" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v., 2007, p..

Robert M. Rauber, Bjorn Stevens, Harry T. Ochs III, Charles Knight, B. A. Albrecht, A.M. Blyth, et al "Rain in (Shallow) Cumulus over the Ocean?The RICO Campaign" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v.88, 2007, p.1912-1928.

Walker, L.R., E. Velazquez, and A.B. Shiels "Applying lessons from ecological succession to the restoration of landslides" Plant and Soil, v.324, 2009, p.157.

Cusack, D. F., W. L. Silver, M. S. Torn, S. D. Burton, and M. K. Firestone "Changes in microbial community characteristics with nitrogen additions and effects on soil organic matter in two tropical forests" Ecology, v.92, 2011, p.621-632.

Burgin, A. J., W. H. Yang, S. K. Hamilton, and W. L. Silver "Beyond C and N: How the microbial energy economy couples elemental cycles in diverse ecosystems" Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v.9, 2011, p.44-52. doi:10.1890/090227 

Burgin, A. J., W. H. Yang, S. K. Hamilton, and W. L. Silver "Beyond carbon and nitrogen: how the microbial energy economy couples elemental cycles in diverse ecosystems" Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v.9, 2011, p.44-52. doi:10.1890/090227 

Cusack, D. F., W. L. Silver, and W. H. McDowell "Effects of chronic nitrogen additions on above- and belowground carbon dynamics in two tropical forests" Biogechemistry, v., 2010, p.. doi:10.1007/s10533-010-9496-4 

DeAngelis K. M, W. L. Silver, A.W. Thompson, M.K. Firestone "Microbial community response to recurring changes in soil redox status" Environmental Microbiology, v., 2010, p.. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02286.x. 

DeAngelis K. M, W. L. Silver, A.W. Thompson, M.K. Firestone "Microbial community response to recurring changes in soil redox status" Environmental Microbiology, v.12, 2010, p.3137-3149. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02286.x. 

DeAngelis, K. M., J. M. Gladden, M. Allgaier, P. D'haeseleer, J. L. Fortney, A. Reddy, P. Hugenholtz, S. W. Singer, J. S. Vander Gheynst, W. L. Silver, B. A. Simmons, T. C. Hazen "Strategies for Enhancing the Effectiveness of Metagenomic-based Enzyme Discovery in Lignocellulolytic Microbial Communities" BioEnergy Research, v., 2010, p.. doi:10.1007/s12155-010-9089-z. 

Cantrell, S.A., M. Molina, D. Jean Lodge, F.J. Rivera-Figueroa, M.L. Ortiz-Hernández, A.A. Marchetti, M.J. Cyterski and J.R. Pérez-Jiménez "Effects of a simulated hurricane disturbance on forest floor microbial communities" Forest Ecology and Management, v.332, 2014, p.22.

DeAngelis, K. M., J. M. Gladden, M. Allgaier, P. D'haeseleer, J. L. Fortney, A. Reddy, P. Hugenholtz, S. W. Singer, J. S. Vander Gheynst, W. L. Silver, B. A. Simmons, T. C. Hazen "Strategies for Enhancing the Effectiveness of Metagenomic-based Enzyme Discovery in Lignocellulolytic Microbial Communities" BioEnergy Research, v.3, 2010, p.146-158. doi:10.1007/s12155-010-9089-z. 

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González, G. and M.M. Luce "Woody debris characterization along an elevation gradient in northeastern Puerto Rico" . Ecological Bulletins, v.54, 2013, p.181.

Li, H., T.M. Aide, Y. Ma, W. Liu, and M. Cao "Demand for rubber is causing the loss of high diversity rain forest in southwest China" Biodiversity and Conservation, v.16, 2007, p.1731-1745. doi:10.1007/s10531-006-9052- 

Yang, W. H. D. J. Herman, D. Liptzin, and W. L. Silver "Using phosphate filtration to remove iron interference from colorimetric nitrate determination in soil extracts" Soil Biology and Biochemistry, v.46, 2012, p.123.

Gonzalez, G. "Earthworms as Invasive Species in Latin America -- the 2nd Latin American Meeting of Oligochaeta (Earthworm) Ecology and Taxonomy (Editorial)" Caribbean Journal of Science, v.42, 2006, p.281-284.

Cusack, D. F. M. S. Torn, W. H. McDowell, and W. L. Silver "The Response of Heterotrophic Activity and Carbon Cycling to Nitrogen Additions and Warming in Two Tropical Soils" Global Change Biology, v.16, 2010, p.2555-2572. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02131.x 

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Rauber, Robert M., Bjorn Stevens, Jennifer Davison, Sabine Goeke, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, David Rogers, Paquita Zuidema, Harry T. Ochs III, Charles Knight, Jorgen Jensen, Sarah Bereznicki, Simona Bordoni, Humberto Caro-Gautier, Marilé Colón-Robles, Mayliss "In the Driver?s Seat ? RICO and Education" American Meteorological Society, v.88, 2007, p.1929.

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Walker, L.R., D.A. Wardle, R.D. Bardgett and B.D. Clarkson "The use of chronosequences in studies of ecological succession and soil development" Journal of Ecology, v.98, 2010, p.725.

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Project Outcomes Report

Disclaimer

This Project Outcomes Report for the General Public is displayed verbatim as submitted by the Principal Investigator (PI) for this award. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this Report are those of the PI and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation; NSF has not approved or endorsed its content.

Luquillo LTER 4

The Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program takes place in northeast Puerto Rico, including the Luquillo Mountains and surrounding urban and developed areas.  It began in 1988 and focuses on how changing natural and human disturbances, and changing climate, are altering tropical forest and aquatic ecosystems, as well as on the consequences of these changes for society in both the tropics and elsewhere.  The Luquillo LTER’s guiding research principle is that only long-term research will reveal the direction and causes of environmental trends that affect societal well-being.  In the funding period, 2006-2014 (LTER 4), Luquillo LTER has increased our understanding of environmental change in the tropics and engaged with society by recruiting students to conduct this research and by communicating its findings through a variety of public forums.

Changing disturbance regime

Natural and human disturbances shape the biological, biogeochemical, and climatic characteristics of tropical ecosystems.  This disturbance regime is changing and thus tropical ecosystems are changing and affecting peoples in and outside the tropics.

Hurricanes are the major natural disturbance in the Luquillo Mountains and in other tropical areas.  Hurricanes affect forest structure, species composition, and nutrient cycling.  In LUQ 4 our long-term observations and a hurricane simulation experiment, the Canopy Trimming Experiment, showed that soil nutrient cycling and stream chemistry return to pre-hurricane conditions relatively quickly, but forest structure, stream-water content of particulate matter, and abundances of some plants and animals recover more slowly.  The emission of carbon and loss of the important nutrient phosphorous from soils after hurricanes is high. Thus the predicted increase in severe hurricanes may change the abundances and diversity of plants and animals, increase the emission of greenhouse gases, and change soil fertility and the quality of stream water used by humans in Puerto Rico and other parts of the tropics.  Repeating the simulated effects of hurricane damage every ten years in the Canopy Trimming Experiment will address this idea.

Land use change is the major human disturbance in the Luquillo Mountains region.   Luquillo LTER has shown that changes in land use, especially urbanization, around stream headwaters significantly affect stream water quality and stream organisms such as shrimp and migratory fish, both of which affect economics and quality of life in Puerto Rico.  These results apply broadly, since both the tropics and other parts of the world are becoming increasingly urbanized.  Logging and other forest uses change trees in forests to fast growing, soft-wooded species, potentially degrading diversity and economic value of forests.

Changing climate

Climate partly determines the spatial distribution of species, quantity and quality of water, and emission of greenhouse gasses.  Data and models suggest that temperature is increasing, rainfall is decreasing, and droughts will be more frequent in the Luquillo Mountains.

Luquillo LTER showed how the distributions of some plant and animal species depend on the climatic conditions along the elevation gradient.  Rising cloud height may dry out the upper elevations, possibly eliminating some species, and reducing water supply collected for human use.  Luquillo LTER has revealed that a possible cause is that in heavily urbanized northeast Puerto Rico the extent of paved areas and reduced vegetative cover has produced an “urban heat island” of higher temperature that can affect nearby natural areas.  Urban heat islands are growing in the tropics and elsewhere.

Luq...

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