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Award Detail

Awardee:WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION
Doing Business As Name:Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
PD/PI:
  • Dennis J McGillicuddy
  • (508) 289-2683
  • dmcgillicuddy@whoi.edu
Co-PD(s)/co-PI(s):
  • Cabell S Davis
  • William J Jenkins
  • James R Ledwell
  • Ken O Buesseler
Award Date:06/27/2003
Estimated Total Award Amount: $ NaN
Funds Obligated to Date: $ 1,837,261
  • FY 2003=$1,837,261
Start Date:07/01/2003
End Date:12/31/2008
Transaction Type:Grant
Agency:NSF
Awarding Agency Code:4900
Funding Agency Code:4900
CFDA Number:47.050
Primary Program Source:490100 NSF RESEARCH & RELATED ACTIVIT
Award Title or Description:Collaborative Research: Impacts of Eddies and Mixing on Plankton Community Structure and Biogeochemical Cycling in the Sargasso Sea
Federal Award ID Number:0241310
DUNS ID:001766682
Parent DUNS ID:001766682
Program:Chemical Oceanography

Awardee Location

Street:183 OYSTER POND ROAD
City:WOODS HOLE
State:MA
ZIP:02543-1041
County:Woods Hole
Country:US
Awardee Cong. District:09

Primary Place of Performance

Organization Name:Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Street:183 OYSTER POND ROAD
City:WOODS HOLE
State:MA
ZIP:02543-1041
County:Woods Hole
Country:US
Cong. District:09

Abstract at Time of Award

ABSTRACT OCE-0241310 / OCE-0241399 / OCE-0241023 / OCE-0241340 / OCE-0241011 The currents, fronts and eddies that comprise the oceanic mesoscale, sometimes referred to as the "internal weather of the sea," are highly energetic and ubiquitous features of ocean circulation. Dynamical consequences of these phenomena include perturbation of the chemical and biological environment that can dramatically impact biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. The processes that regulate this response are extraordinarily complex, challenging us to understand how the physical, biological and chemical processes are functionally related. Recent evidence suggests that mesoscale eddies are an important nutrient transport mechanism in the oligotrophic waters of the main subtropical gyres. Numerical simulations and satellite-based statistical estimates indicate that the magnitude of the eddy-driven nutrient flux could be sufficient to balance geochemical estimates of new production, which far exceed that which can be sustained by traditional mechanisms of nutrient supply. Relatively few direct observations of this process are available, owing to the spatial and temporal intermittency of the events that drive it. Available data demonstrate that isopycnal displacements associated with certain types of eddies can transport nutrients into the euphotic zone, resulting in the accumulation of chlorophyll in the overlying waters. However, the nature of the biological response and its impact on coupled biogeochemical cycles and export has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the relationship between eddy-induced upwelling and diapycnal mixing in and below the mixed layer remains obscure; the strength of this interaction determines the degree to which the eddy-driven effects are irreversible and thereby effect a net biogeochemical flux. In this project, a team of oceanographic researchers will document phytoplankton physiological response, changes in community structure, export and the biogeochemical ramifications of eddy-induced upwelling and mixing in the Sargasso Sea. Target features will be identified prior to field deployment via remote sensing. High-resolution surveys will be undertaken with an undulating towed instrument package that includes a Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometer. This suite of instruments will facilitate simultaneous assessment of photosynthetic parameters and the species assemblage of phytoplankton and zooplankton. These measurements will be accompanied by discrete water sampling of biogeochemical properties in sets of stations along cross sections of the chosen features. Export will be measured at selected locations within the mesoscale structure. Rates of mixing between the surface mixed layer and waters at the base of the euphotic zone will be inferred from the Helium flux gauge and measured directly with a sulfur hexafluoride tracer release. Taken together, these observations will be sufficient to test the hypothesis that eddy-induced upwelling increases photosynthetic rates, changes community structure and increases export from the euphotic zone, thereby playing an important role in biogeochemical cycling of the subtropical oceans. The research will be carried out in a collaborative effort among ten principal investigators from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Rutgers University, University of California, Santa Barbara, and the University of Miami. The work plan consists of two years of field observations followed by a final year of synthesis.

Publications Produced as a Result of this Research

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Buesseler, K.O., Lamborg, C., Cai, P., Escoube, R., Johnson, R., Pike, S., Masque, P., McGillicuddy, D.J., Verdeny, E. "Particle Fluxes Associated with Mesoscale Eddies in the Sargasso Sea" Deep Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p.1426.

Buesseler, K.O., Lamborg, C., Cai, P., Escoube, R., Johnson, R., Pike, S., Masque, P., McGillicuddy, D.J., Verdeny, E. "Particle Fluxes Associated with Mesoscale Eddies in the Sargasso Sea" Deep-Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p.1426.

Davis, C.S., and McGillicuddy, D.J. "Transatlantic Abundance of the N2-Fixing Colonial Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium" Science, v.312, 2006, p.1517.

Li, Q.P., Hansell, D.A., Zhang, J.-Z. "Underway monitoring of nanomolar nitrate plus nitrite and phosphate in oligotrophic seawater" Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, v.6, 2008, p.319.

Jenkins, W.J., McGillicuddy, D.J., and Lott III, D.E. "The Distributions of, and Relationship Between 3 He and Nitrate in Eddies" Deep Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p.1389.

Jenkins, W.J., McGillicuddy, D.J., Lott III, D.E. "The Distributions of, and Relationship Between 3 He and Nitrate in Eddies" Deep-Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p.1389.

Benitez-Nelson, C.R. and McGillicuddy, D.J. "Mesoscale Physical-Biological-Biogeochemical Linkages in the Open Ocean: An Introduction to the Results of the E-Flux and EDDIES Programs." Deep Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p.1133.

Benitez-Nelson, C.R. and McGillicuddy, D.J. "Mesoscale Physical-Biological-Biogeochemical Linkages in the Open Ocean: An Introduction to the Results of the E-Flux and EDDIES Programs" Deep-Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p.1133.

Goldthwait, S.A. and Steinberg, D.K. "Elevated biomass of mesozooplankton and enhanced fecal pellet flux in cyclonic and mode-water eddies in the Sargasso Sea" Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, v.55, 2008, p.1360.

McGillicuddy, D.J., et. al. "Eddy/Wind Interactions Stimulate Extraordinary Mid-Ocean Plankton Blooms" Science, v.316, 2007, p.1021.

McGillicuddy, et. al. "Eddy/Wind Interactions Stimulate Extraordinary Mid-Ocean Plankton Blooms." Science, v.316, 2007, p.1021.

Andrews, J.E., Hartin, C., and Buesseler, K.O. "7Be Analyses in Seawater by Low Background Gamma-Spectroscopy." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, v.277, 2008, p.253.

Andrews, J.E., Hartin, C., Buesseler, K.O. "7Be Analyses in Seawater by Low Background Gamma-Spectroscopy" Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, v.277, 2008, p.253.

Carlson, C.A., del Giorgio, P., Herdl, G. "Microbes and the dissipation of energy and respiration: From cells to ecosystems" Oceanography, v.20, 2007, p.89.

Li, Q.P. and Hansell, D.A. "Intercomparison and coupling of MAGIC and LWCC techniques for trace analysis of phosphate in seawater" Analytical Chemica Acta, v.611, 2008, p.68.

McGillicuddy, D.J., Ledwell, J.R., and Anderson, L.A. "Response to Comment on "Eddy/Wind Interactions Stimulate Extraordinary Mid-Ocean Plankton Bloom"." Science, v.320, 2008, p.. doi:10.1126/science.1148974 

McGillicuddy, D.J., Ledwell, J.R., Anderson, L.A. "Response to Comment on "Eddy/Wind Interactions Stimulate Extraordinary Mid-Ocean Plankton Bloom"" Science, v.320, 2008, p.. doi:doi:10.1126/science.1148974 

Ledwell, J.R., McGillicuddy, D.J., and Anderson, L.A. "Nutrient Flux into an Intense Deep Chlorophyll Layer in a Mode-water Eddy." Deep Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p.1139.

Ledwell, J.R., McGillicuddy, D.J., Anderson, L.A. "Nutrient Flux into an Intense Deep Chlorophyll Layer in a Mode-water Eddy" Deep-Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p.1139.

Greenan, B.J.W. "Shear and Richardson number in a mode-water eddy" Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, v.55, 2008, p.1161.

Ewart, C.S., Meyers, M.K., Wallner, E., McGillicuddy, D.J., Carlson, C.A. "Microbial Dynamics in Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Mode-Water Eddies in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea" Deep Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p.1334.

Ewart, C.S., Meyers, M.K., Wallner, E., McGillicuddy, D.J., Carlson, C.A. "Microbial Dynamics in Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Mode-Water Eddies in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea" Deep-Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p.1334.

Li, Q.P., Zhang, J.-Z., Millero, F.J., Hansell, D.A. "Continuous colorimetric determination of trace ammonium in seawater with a long-path liquid waveguide capillary cell" Marine Chemistry, v.96, 2005, p.73.

Li, Q.P., Hansell, D.A., McGillicuddy, D.J., Bates, N.R., Johnson, R.J. "Tracer-based assessment of the origin and biogeochemical transformation of a cyclonic eddy in the Sargasso Sea" Journal of Geophysical Research, v.113, 2008, p.10006. doi:doi:10.1029/2008JC004840 

Mourino B., and McGillicuddy, D.J. "Mesoscale Variability in the Metabolic Balance of the Sargasso Sea" Limnology & Oceanography, v.51, 2006, p.2675.

Bibby, T.S., Gorbunov, M.Y., Wyman, K.W., Falkowski, P.G. "Photosynthetic community responses to upwelling in mesoscale eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans" Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, v.55, 2008, p.1310.

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