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Award Detail

Awardee:CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON
Doing Business As Name:Carnegie Institution of Washington
PD/PI:
  • Dionysios I Foustoukos
  • (202) 478-8968
  • dfoustoukos@ciw.edu
Award Date:08/30/2011
Estimated Total Award Amount: $ 59,477
Funds Obligated to Date: $ 59,477
  • FY 2011=$59,477
Start Date:10/01/2011
End Date:09/30/2013
Transaction Type:Grant
Agency:NSF
Awarding Agency Code:4900
Funding Agency Code:4900
CFDA Number:47.050
Primary Program Source:040100 NSF RESEARCH & RELATED ACTIVIT
Award Title or Description:Collaborative Research: Autotrophic carbon fixation at a shallow-water hydrothermal system: Constraining microbial activity, isotopic and geochemical regimes
Federal Award ID Number:1123871
DUNS ID:072641707
Parent DUNS ID:072641707
Program:BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY

Awardee Location

Street:1530 P ST NW
City:WASHINGTON
State:DC
ZIP:20005-1910
County:Washington
Country:US
Awardee Cong. District:00

Primary Place of Performance

Organization Name:Carnegie Institution of Washington
Street:
City:
State:DC
ZIP:20005-1910
County:Washington
Country:US
Cong. District:00

Abstract at Time of Award

Currently, there is only limited information on the identity and activity of the microorganisms carrying out CO2-fixation in situ, despite the fact that these organisms form the basis of their respective ecosystems. Representatives that are able to grow autotrophically are known to exist in almost all major groups of prokaryotes, and these organisms play essential roles in ecosystems by providing a continuous supply of organic carbon for heterotrophs. Microorganisms present in extreme environments utilize CO2- fixation pathways other than the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. At present, five alternative autotrophic CO2 fixation pathways are known. Different carbon fixation pathways result in distinct isotopic signatures of the produced biomass due to the isotopic discrimination between light (12C) and heavy (13C) carbon by the carboxylating enzymes. Thus, inferences about the carbon fixation pathway predominantly utilized by the microbial community can also be made based on the stable carbon isotopic composition of the organic matter, in extant systems as well as in the geological record. However, at present little is known about the systematics and extents of fractionation during carbon fixation by prokaryotic organisms, and to our knowledge no studies exist that have systematically studied the relationship between the operation of different carbon fixation pathways and how this is reflected in the stable carbon isotopic composition in a natural system. This is a 2-year interdisciplinary, international research program that employs a powerful combination of cutting-edge research tools aiming to improve our understanding of autotrophic carbon fixation and its chemical and isotopic signature along environmental gradients in a natural hydrothermal system. The following hypotheses are addressed: 1. The diversity of microorganisms present along a thermal and redox gradient, and rates of CO2 fixation, will reflect adaptation to in situ temperatures and geochemical conditions 2. Microorganisms utilizing the CBB cycle for autotrophic CO2-fixation will represent a smaller percentage of the chemolithoautotrophic community at higher temperatures, where microorganisms utilizing alternative CO2-fixation pathways dominate 3. Isotopic values of biomass and specific biomarker molecules will vary along a thermal and redox gradient from zones characterized by a higher hydrothermal fluid flux and thus higher temperatures to the surrounding, cooler areas, corresponding to the physiology of the microorganisms utilizing different pathways for carbon fixation The PIs will use a multidisciplinary approach to delineate the relative contribution of the different carbon fixation pathways along an environmental gradient by combining metagenomic analyses coupled with: 1) an assessment of the frequency and the expression of specific key genes involved in carbon fixation, and 2) with the measurement of carbon fixation rates. These data will be integrated with the determination of stable C isotopic composition of biomass, DIC, and specific hydrocarbons/lipids. Due to its easy accessibility, well-established environmental gradients, and extensive background information, the shallow-water vents off Milos (Greece) will be used as a natural laboratory to perform these studies. Intellectual Merit. The data generated in this study will allow constraints on the relationship between autotrophic carbon fixation and the resulting isotopic signatures of biomass and specific biomarker molecules (e.g. CH4, C2+ alkanes, lipids) in a natural system. This has implications for assessing the importance of carbon fixation in extant ecosystems, and it will also provide a tool to improve the interpretation of isotopic values in the geological record. Broader Impacts. This is an interdisciplinary and collaborative effort between US and foreign institutions, creating unique opportunities for networking and to foster international collaborations. This will also benefit the involved students (1 graduate, several undergraduates) and a postdoc. The PIs have been involved in several educational and public outreach activities over the years that have reached literally millions of individuals. Finally, the project fits with the focus of a number of multi-disciplinary and international initiatives, in which PIs are active members (e.g. the SCOR working group on Hydrothermal energy and the ocean carbon cycle; and the Deep Carbon Observatory at CIW).

Publications Produced as a Result of this Research

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Yucel, M., Sievert, S.M., Vetriani, C., Foustoukos, D.I., Giovannelli, D. Le Bris, N. "Eco-geochemical dynamics of a shallow-water hydrothermal vent system at Milos Island, Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean)" Chemical Geology, v.356, 2013, p.11.


Project Outcomes Report

Disclaimer

This Project Outcomes Report for the General Public is displayed verbatim as submitted by the Principal Investigator (PI) for this award. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this Report are those of the PI and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation; NSF has not approved or endorsed its content.

In this project we studied the shallow-water hydrothermal vent sites at Milos Island (Greece) to better understand the extent of autotrophic carbon fixation and its chemical and isotopic signature along environmental (redox/thermal) gradients. This was a 12-day long expedition (May 18 to 30, 2012) to sample vent fluids, gases and retrieve sediment cores at Paleochori Bay by using SCUBA diving at 8-10 m depth. In addition to the submarine vent sites, two subaerial locations of venting were identified at 36o 40' 28"N - 24o 31' 14" E and 36o 40' 25" N - 24o 30' 44" E. Both the subaerial and submarine sites are located on the same fracture zone that likely controls the hydrothermal circulation of evolved meteoritic water and seawater within the magmatic zone of Milos Island. To this end, the geochemistry of the fluids and gases emitted from subaerial sites provide important information towards identifying the linkage between the subaerial and submarine magmatic activity and provide insights on the metabolic functions (e.g. H2 oxidation, Fe(III) reduction, C and S cycling) of the subsurface microbial community.

The group from Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington was responsible for processing the fluid and gas samples. At the site, we performed gas chromatography to determine the concentration of dissolved gases (methane, C2-C6 alkanes, H2, CO2, H2S) collected by gas-tight syringes. Samples returned to the Geophysical Lab were analyzed to determine dissolved concentrations of: dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), organic acids and a range of major anions/cations species (e.g. SO42-, PO42-, NO3-, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) including trace elements and metals. Fluids were analyzed for metal and trace element concentrations at the MC-ICP-MS facility of Prof. Michael Bizimis at the University of South Carolina. In this project, we shared our samples with Dr. Bizimis and encouraged him to proceed with any further analysis that may suit his research program. We also determined the d13C composition of dissolved inorganic carbon at the stable isotope facility of the Geophysical Lab. Data have been released to the public through our Data Depository (http://people.gl.ciw.edu/dfoustoukos/Site/Data_Repository.html). Furthermore, sediments and minerals collected from the submarine and subaerial vents are to be analyzed and studied as part of Joe Maloney’s M.Sc. Thesis. This is a collaborative project with Dr. Julia Nord, who is the academic advisor of Maloney at George Mason University.

An important contribution to the discipline is the isolation and?characterization of a novel thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms; that overall have been very scarcely described in microbial communities from either deep-sea or shallow-water hydrothermal vent sites. Fe(III)-reducing bacteria play a key role on the cycling of Fe between the oceanic crust and the overlying hydrosphere. This microorganism has been isolated and phylogenetically/physiologically characterized by Dr. Perez-Rodriguez (GL Postdoctoral Fellow) and Matthew Rawls (undergraduate student, George Mason University). This appears to be a thermophilic Fe(III) reducing species of Deltaproteobacteria named strain MAG-PB1. This strain was isolated from a marine sediment core located at 8 meters water depth and with a pore fluids temperature of 26oC. However, this anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium attains optimum growth temperature of 65oC, which highlights the adaptation of these organisms to the strong thermal gradients of the hydrothermal fluids...

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