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Award Detail

Awardee:CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY
Doing Business As Name:Carnegie-Mellon University
PD/PI:
  • Ken Koedinger
  • (412) 268-7667
  • Koedinger@cmu.edu
Award Date:02/16/2010
Estimated Total Award Amount: $ 23,050,000
Funds Obligated to Date: $ 23,050,000
  • FY 2011=$5,000,000
  • FY 2012=$4,500,000
  • FY 2010=$5,000,000
  • FY 2013=$4,500,000
  • FY 2014=$4,050,000
Start Date:02/15/2010
End Date:01/31/2016
Transaction Type: Cooperative Agreements
Agency:NSF
Awarding Agency Code:4900
Funding Agency Code:4900
CFDA Number:47.075
Primary Program Source:040100 NSF RESEARCH & RELATED ACTIVIT
Award Title or Description:Toward a Decade of PSLC Research: Investigating Instructional, Social, and Learner Factors in Robust Learning through Data-Driven Analysis and Modeling
Federal Award ID Number:0836012
DUNS ID:052184116
Parent DUNS ID:052184116
Program:SCIENCE OF LEARN CTRS- CENTERS
Program Officer:
  • Soo-Siang Lim
  • (703) 292-7878
  • slim@nsf.gov

Awardee Location

Street:5000 Forbes Avenue
City:PITTSBURGH
State:PA
ZIP:15213-3815
County:Pittsburgh
Country:US
Awardee Cong. District:18

Primary Place of Performance

Organization Name:Carnegie-Mellon University
Street:5000 Forbes Avenue
City:PITTSBURGH
State:PA
ZIP:15213-3815
County:Pittsburgh
Country:US
Cong. District:18

Abstract at Time of Award

Proposal SBE 0836012: PSLC ABSTRACT This is a proposal to renew PSLC, the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center for an additional and final five year term. PSLC is situated at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, with the University of Pittsburgh as the principle partner institution. Like all Science of Learning Centers, PSLC is a multi-university, multi-year, interdisciplinary project to address the theoretical and practical issues involved in conducting rigorous laboratory-quality studies of learning in real-world classrooms enhanced with intelligent tutoring systems. Central to the vision of investigators is a focus on the conditions that enable "robust learning", learning that transfers to new situations, lasts for a long time and accelerates future learning. In addition, the data generated is collected in large data-bases for mining by the broad community of learning researchers, not just by those associated with PSLC. More than just a research center, PSLC is also committed to the education of undergraduates, graduate students and post-doctoral students; to increasing diversity among faculty, students and future scientists, and to the transfer of research results to educational practice.

Publications Produced as a Result of this Research

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Macwhinney, B "Computational models of child language learning: an introduction (vol 37, pg 477, 2010)" JOURNAL OF CHILD LANGUAGE, v.37, 2010, p.963. doi:10.1017/S030500091000031  View record at Web of Science

Asterhan, CSC; Schwarz, BB "Online moderation of synchronous e-argumentation" INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER-SUPPORTED COLLABORATIVE LEARNING, v.5, 2010, p.259. doi:10.1007/s11412-010-9088-  View record at Web of Science

Diziol, D; Walker, E; Rummel, N; Koedinger, KR "Using Intelligent Tutor Technology to Implement Adaptive Support for Student Collaboration" EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW, v.22, 2010, p.89. doi:10.1007/s10648-009-9116-  View record at Web of Science

MacWhinney, B "Computational models of child language learning: an introduction" JOURNAL OF CHILD LANGUAGE, v.37, 2010, p.477. doi:10.1017/S030500091000013  View record at Web of Science

Frishkoff, GA; Perfetti, CA "THE EMERGENCE OF "LEXICAL QUALITY'' FROM READING EXPERIENCE: EARLY ERP SIGNATURES OF PARTIAL VS. ROBUST WORD LEARNING FROM TEXT" PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, v.47, 2010, p.S3. View record at Web of Science

Scheuer, O; Loll, F; Pinkwart, N; McLaren, BM "Computer-supported argumentation: A review of the state of the art" INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER-SUPPORTED COLLABORATIVE LEARNING, v.5, 2010, p.43. doi:10.1007/s11412-009-9080-  View record at Web of Science

Salden, RJCM; Koedinger, KR; Renkl, A; Aleven, V; McLaren, BM "Accounting for Beneficial Effects of Worked Examples in Tutored Problem Solving" EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW, v.22, 2010, p.379. doi:10.1007/s10648-010-9143-  View record at Web of Science

Yang, CL; Perfetti, CA; Liu, Y "Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses" BRAIN AND LANGUAGE, v.112, 2010, p.85. doi:10.1016/j.bandl.2009.10.00  View record at Web of Science

Prior, A; MacWhinney, B "A bilingual advantage in task switching" BILINGUALISM-LANGUAGE AND COGNITION, v.13, 2010, p.253. doi:10.1017/S136672890999052  View record at Web of Science

Balass, M; Nelson, JR; Perfetti, CA "Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing" CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, v.35, 2010, p.126. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.04.00  View record at Web of Science

"Baker, R.;de Carvalho, A.;Raspat, J.;Aleven, V.;Corbett, A.;Koedinger, K."; ""Using Taxonomies and Educational Data Mining to Understand How Educational Software Design Impacts Gaming the System. ""Factors That Impact Student Engagement and Learning Behaviors in ILEs"""" AERA, v., 2010, p..

Salden, RJCM; Aleven, V; Schwonke, R; Renkl, A "The expertise reversal effect and worked examples in tutored problem solving" INSTRUCTIONAL SCIENCE, v.38, 2010, p.289. doi:10.1007/s11251-009-9107-  View record at Web of Science

Baker, RSJD; D'Mello, SK; Rodrigo, MMT; Graesser, AC "Better to be frustrated than bored: The incidence, persistence, and impact of learners' cognitive affective states during interactions with three different computer-based learning environments" INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES, v.68, 2010, p.223. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.12.00  View record at Web of Science

Nokes, TJ; Ash, IK "Investigating the Role of Instructional Focus in Incidental Pattern Learning" JOURNAL OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY, v.137, 2010, p.84. View record at Web of Science

Aleven, V; Roll, I; McLaren, BM; Koedinger, KR "Automated, Unobtrusive, Action-by-Action Assessment of Self-Regulation During Learning With an Intelligent Tutoring System" EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST, v.45, 2010, p.224. doi:10.1080/00461520.2010.51774  View record at Web of Science

Barnes, T; Stamper, J "Automatic Hint Generation for Logic Proof Tutoring Using Historical Data" EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY, v.13, 2010, p.3. View record at Web of Science

Prior, A; Wintner, S; Macwhinney, B; Lavie, A "Translation ambiguity in and out of context" APPLIED PSYCHOLINGUISTICS, v.32, 2011, p.93. doi:10.1017/S014271641000030  View record at Web of Science

Frishkoff, GA; Perfetti, CA; Collins-Thompson, K "Lexical Quality in the Brain: ERP Evidence for Robust Word Learning From Context" DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, v.35, 2010, p.376. doi:10.1080/87565641201048091  View record at Web of Science

Chi, M; VanLehn, K "Meta-Cognitive Strategy Instruction in Intelligent Tutoring Systems: How, When, and Why" EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY, v.13, 2010, p.25. View record at Web of Science

Publications Produced as Conference Proceedings

Isotani, S;McLaren, BM;Altman, M "Towards Intelligent Tutoring with Erroneous Examples: A Taxonomy of Decimal Misconceptions" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.346 View record at Web of Science

Loll, F;Scheuer, O;McLaren, BM;Pinkwart, N "Learning to Argue Using Computers - A View from Teachers, Researchers, and System Developers" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.377 View record at Web of Science

Tsovaltzi, D;McLaren, BM;Melis, E;Meyer, AK;Dietrich, M;Goguadze, G "Learning from Erroneous Examples" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.420 View record at Web of Science

Wegerif, R;McLaren, BM;Chamrada, M;Scheuer, O;Mansour, N;Miksatko, J;Williams, M "Exploring creative thinking in graphically mediated synchronous dialogues" Symposium on Learning in Digital Worlds, v.54, 2010, p.613 View record at Web of Science

Frishkoff, GA;Perfetti, CA "THE EMERGENCE OF "LEXICAL QUALITY'' FROM READING EXPERIENCE: EARLY ERP SIGNATURES OF PARTIAL VS. ROBUST WORD LEARNING FROM TEXT" 50th Annual Meeting Portland Marriott Downtown Waterfront, v.47, 2010, p.S3 View record at Web of Science

Siler, S;Klahr, D;Magaro, C;Willows, K;Mowery, D "Predictors of Transfer of Experimental Design Skills in Elementary and Middle School Children" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.198 View record at Web of Science

Siler, S;Mowery, D;Magaro, C;Willows, K;Klahr, D "Comparison of a Computer-Based to Hands-On Lesson in Experimental Design" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.408 View record at Web of Science

Muldner, K;Burleson, W;Van de Sande, B;VanLehn, K "An Analysis of Gaming Behaviors in an Intelligent Tutoring System" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6094, 2010, p.184 View record at Web of Science

Chi, M;VanLehn, K;Litman, D "Do Micro-Level Tutorial Decisions Matter: Applying Reinforcement Learning to Induce Pedagogical Tutorial Tactics" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6094, 2010, p.224 View record at Web of Science

Jung, SY;VanLehn, K "Developing an Intelligent Tutoring System Using Natural Language for Knowledge Representation" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.355 View record at Web of Science

Chi, M;VanLehn, K;Litman, D;Jordan, P "Inducing Effective Pedagogical Strategies Using Learning Context Features" 18th International Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, v.6075, 2010, p.147 View record at Web of Science

Muldner, K;Burleson, W;VanLehn, K ""Yes!": Using Tutor and Sensor Data to Predict Moments of Delight during Instructional Activities" 18th International Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, v.6075, 2010, p.159 View record at Web of Science

Mostow, J;Aist, G;Bey, J;Chen, W;Corbett, A;Duan, WS;Duke, N;Duong, M;Gates, D;Gonzalez, JP;Juarez, O;Kantoizyk, M;Li, YP;Liu, L;McKeown, M;Trotochaud, C;Valeri, J;Weinstein, A;Yen, D "A Better Reading Tutor That Listens" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.451 View record at Web of Science

Easterday, MW "An Intelligent Debater for Teaching Argumentation" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.218 View record at Web of Science

Kumar, R;Ai, H;Beuth, JL;Rose, CP "Socially Capable Conversational Tutors Can Be Effective in Collaborative Learning Situations" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6094, 2010, p.156 View record at Web of Science

Ai, H;Kumar, R;Nguyen, D;Nagasunder, A;Rose, CP "Exploring the Effectiveness of Social Capabilities and Goal Alignment in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.134 View record at Web of Science

Howley, IK;Rose, CP "Student Dispositions and Help-Seeking in Collaborative Learning" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.230 View record at Web of Science

Oberoi, SV;Nguyen, D;Gweon, G;Finger, S;Rose, CP "DesignWebs: A Tool for Automatic Construction of Interactive Conceptual Maps from Document Collections" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.387 View record at Web of Science

Stamper, J;Barnes, T;Croy, M "Enhancing the Automatic Generation of Hints with Expert Seeding" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.31 View record at Web of Science

Pavlik, P;Toth, J "How to Build Bridges between Intelligent Tutoring System Subfields of Research" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.103 View record at Web of Science

Matsuda, N;Cohen, WW;Koedinger, KR;Stylianides, G "LEARNING TO SOLVE ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS BY TEACHING A COMPUTER AGENT" 34th Conference of the International-Group-for-the-Psychology-of-Mathematics-Education, v. , 2010, p.69 View record at Web of Science

Roll, I;Aleven, V;Koedinger, KR "The Invention Lab: Using a Hybrid of Model Tracing and Constraint-Based Modeling to Offer Intelligent Support in Inquiry Environments" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6094, 2010, p.115 View record at Web of Science

Walker, E;Walker, S;Rummel, N;Koedinger, KR "Using Problem-Solving Context to Assess Help Quality in Computer-Mediated Peer Tutoring" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6094, 2010, p.145 View record at Web of Science

Wylie, R;Koedinger, K;Mitamura, T "Analogies, Explanations, and Practice: Examining How Task Types Affect Second Language Grammar Learning" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6094, 2010, p.214 View record at Web of Science

Matsuda, N;Keiser, V;Raizada, R;Tu, A;Stylianides, G;Cohen, WW;Koedinger, KR "Learning by Teaching SimStudent: Technical Accomplishments and an Initial Use with Students" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6094, 2010, p.317 View record at Web of Science

Feng, MY;Heffernan, NT;Koedinger, K "Using Data Mining Findings to Aid Searching for Better Cognitive Models" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.312 View record at Web of Science

Li, N;Cohen, WW;Koedinger, KR "A Computational Model of Accelerated Future Learning through Feature Recognition" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.368 View record at Web of Science

Matsuda, N;Keiser, V;Raizada, R;Stylianides, G;Cohen, WW;Koedinger, K "Learning by Teaching SimStudent" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.449 View record at Web of Science

Stamper, J;Koedinger, K;Baker, RSJD;Skogsholm, A;Leber, B;Rankin, J;Demi, S "PSLC DataShop: A Data Analysis Service for the Learning Science Community" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.455 View record at Web of Science

Baker, RSJD;Goldstein, AB;Heffernan, NT "Detecting the Moment of Learning" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6094, 2010, p.25 View record at Web of Science

Rodrigo, MMT;Baker, RSJD;Agapito, J;Nabos, J;Repalam, MC;Reyes, SS "Comparing Disengaged Behavior within a Cognitive Tutor in the USA and Philippines" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.263 View record at Web of Science

Giguere, S;Beck, J;Baker, R "Analyzing Student Gaming with Bayesian Networks" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.321 View record at Web of Science

Gobert, JD;Montalvo, O;Toto, E;Pedro, MS;Baker, RSJD "The Science Assistments Project: Scaffolding Scientific Inquiry Skills" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.445 View record at Web of Science

Baker, RSJD;Corbett, AT;Gowda, SM;Wagner, AZ;MacLaren, BA;Kauffman, LR;Mitchell, AP;Giguere, S "Contextual Slip and Prediction of Student Performance after Use of an Intelligent Tutor" 18th International Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, v.6075, 2010, p.52 View record at Web of Science

Baker, RSJD;Mitrovic, A;Mathews, M "Detecting Gaming the System in Constraint-Based Tutors" 18th International Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, v.6075, 2010, p.267 View record at Web of Science

Ogan, A;Aleven, V;Kim, J;Jones, C "Intercultural Negotiation with Virtual Humans: The Effect of Social Goals on Gameplay and Learning" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6094, 2010, p.174 View record at Web of Science

Rau, MA;Aleven, V;Rummel, N "Blocked versus Interleaved Practice with Multiple Representations in an Intelligent Tutoring System for Fractions" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6094, 2010, p.413 View record at Web of Science

Feenstra, L;Aleven, V;Rummel, N;Taatgen, N "Multiple Interactive Representations for Fractions Learning" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.221 View record at Web of Science

Aleven, V;Leber, B;Sewall, J "ITS Authoring through Programming-by-Demonstration" 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, v.6095, 2010, p.438 View record at Web of Science


Project Outcomes Report

Disclaimer

This Project Outcomes Report for the General Public is displayed verbatim as submitted by the Principal Investigator (PI) for this award. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this Report are those of the PI and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation; NSF has not approved or endorsed its content.

 

Through eleven years of operation ending in January 2016, LearnLab has carried out a focused mission to leverage cognitive theory and computational modeling to identify the instructional conditions that cause robust student learning. Of many discoveries that the center produced, a distinct and unifying discovery is that within the vast space of instructional design (Fig 1), there is no one-size-fits-all answer to optimizing robust student learning.  Instead, schools, colleges, and education companies must engage in an engineering process, guided by practical learning science theory, that involves deep analysis of course content and of the learning processes that lead to its acquisition.

From the early history of the center, the development of a shared theoretical framework was a center-wide endeavor. Going beyond the usual progress of science through collaborative publications, we facilitated shared theory development through an open research wiki.  More fundamentally, LearnLab is a social cyberinfrastructure for learning science (Fig 2) that

systematically produced a vast and rich empirical basis for theory development.  It facilitated over 360 scientifically rigorous and practically relevant in vivo experiments run through educational technology used in courses in math, science, and language learning and amassed over 850 datasets on the student learning processes in the open data repository DataShop. Collectively, this data involves nearly 200 million coded observations of student learning behaviors. This data was collected through student interactions with widely disseminated and highly effective educational technologies, for example, in high school math and science and college statistics (Fig 3). Analysis of such data has led to basic research insights into the causal mechanisms of implicit and explicit learning processes and the social and motivational conditions that enable them. By integrating insights across the center, we advanced an education-relevant learning theory that culminated in the Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) framework.

The KLI framework demonstrates that optimal learning depends on the nature of the knowledge to be acquired (Fig 4). This "KLI dependency” is explained in terms of elements of detailed taxonomies of knowledge types (e.g., facts, skills, and principles), of learning processes (e.g. memory, induction, and sense making), and of instructional principles. Specific theoretical alignments of these elements (e.g., facts are best learned by memory processes, skills by induction processes, and principles by sense making processes) are supported by vast amounts of empirical evidence.  KLI prov...

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