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Award Detail

Awardee:CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Doing Business As Name:Cornell University
PD/PI:
  • Georg H Hoffstaetter
  • (607) 255-5197
  • gh77@cornell.edu
Co-PD(s)/co-PI(s):
  • Matthias U Liepe
  • Ivan V Bazarov
  • Joel D Brock
Award Date:09/23/2010
Estimated Total Award Amount: $ 32,040,000
Funds Obligated to Date: $ 30,948,000
  • FY 2011=$7,048,000
  • FY 2014=$3,620,000
  • FY 2013=$7,600,000
  • FY 2012=$7,980,000
  • FY 2010=$4,700,000
Start Date:10/01/2010
End Date:12/31/2015
Transaction Type: Cooperative Agreements
Agency:NSF
Awarding Agency Code:4900
Funding Agency Code:4900
CFDA Number:47.049
Primary Program Source:040100 NSF RESEARCH & RELATED ACTIVIT
Award Title or Description:IMR: Phase Ib Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) Technology R&D
Federal Award ID Number:0807731
DUNS ID:872612445
Parent DUNS ID:002254837
Program:MPS DMR INSTRUMENTATION
Program Officer:
  • Guebre Tessema
  • (703) 292-4935
  • gtessema@nsf.gov

Awardee Location

Street:373 Pine Tree Road
City:Ithaca
State:NY
ZIP:14850-2820
County:Ithaca
Country:US
Awardee Cong. District:23

Primary Place of Performance

Organization Name:Cornell University
Street:373 Pine Tree Road
City:Ithaca
State:NY
ZIP:14850-2820
County:Ithaca
Country:US
Cong. District:23

Abstract at Time of Award

0807731 Gruner This award from the Division of Materials Research and the Division of Chemistry supports Cornell University to perform accelerator and x-ray technology research and development (R&D) to advance in a non-site specific way preparation for construction of an ultrahigh spectral brightness, hard x-ray coherent light sources (CLS), such as Energy Recovery Linacs and X-ray Free Electron Lasers. The high coherence and temporal properties of a CLS would transform the sciences and engineering and would enable numerous experiments that are not feasible using existing x-ray sources. Enabled capabilities would include studies on ultrafast chemical reactions, holographic imaging of materials and biological structures, new ways to determine the structure of proteins, properties of matter under extremely high pressures, and properties of glasses, disordered, and polycrystalline materials. Continued R&D is needed on the electron beam and x-ray technologies required to realize a CLS. Cornell proposes to utilize apparatus assembled under previous NSF awards to perform R&D based on the Energy Recovery Linac Technology, with specific emphasis on the requisite (1) superconducting electron accelerators, (2) electron sources, (3) electron beam physics and diagnostics, (4) electron beam dynamics, and (5) x-ray beamline components capable of handling CLS x-ray beams. The R&D will involve collaborations with other laboratories, both in the U.S. and abroad. Training the technical work force will be a major product of the work. This training is made more important by intense world-wide demand for accelerator physicists and beamline scientists familiar with the apparatus and challenges of new high brightness synchrotron beams. The work includes an effective, diversity-based, broad outreach program to the K-12 and undergraduate communities.

Publications Produced as a Result of this Research

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M.N. Lakshmanan, et. al. "Geometry Optimization of DC and SRF Guns to Maximize Beam Brightness" Proceedings of the ERL09, v., 2009, p..

E. Chojnacki, et al. "Cryogenic Heat Load of the Cornell ERL Main Linac Cryomodule" Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on RF Superconductivity, Berlin, Germany, September 20 - 25, v., 2009, p.638.

C.E. Mayes, et al. "Exact 1D Model for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation with Shielding and Bunch Compression" Physical Review ST-AB12, v., 2009, p..

V. Shemelin, et al. "Superconducting Multicell Cavity Design for the Energy Recovery Linac at Cornell" Proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 4 - 8, v., 2009, p..

Valery Shemelin "Multipactor in crossed rf fields on the cavity equator, http://journals.aps.org/prstab/pdf/10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.16.012002" Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, v.16, 2013, p.. doi:10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.16.012002 

M. Liepe, et al. "Latest Results and Test Plans from the 100mA Cornell ERL Injector SCRF Cyromodule" Proceedings of IPAC10, Kyoto, Japan, v., 2010, p..

Q. Huang, et al. "Carbon Nantube RF Absorbing Materials" Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on RF Superconductivity, Berlin, Germany, September 20 - 25, v., 2009, p.648.

L. Cultrera, S. Karkare, B. Lillard, A. Bartnik, I. Bazarov, B. Dunham, W. Schaff, and K. Smolenski "Growth and characterization of rugged sodium potassium antimonide photocathodes for high brilliance photoinjector" Appl. Phys. Lett., v.103, 2013, p.. doi:http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/apl/103/10/10.1063/1.4820132 

G.H. Hoffstaetter, et. al. "Wake-field Compensation in Energy Recovery Linacs" Proceedings EPAC08, Genoa, ITALY, v., 2008, p..

B. Dunham, et. al. "First Tests of the Cornell University ERL Injector" Proceedings of the XXIV Linear Accelerator Conference, Victoria, BC, Canada, September 29 - October 3, 2008, v., 2008, p.699.

S. Belomestnykh, et. al. "Deflecting Cavity for Beam Diagnostics at Cornell ERL Injector" Nucl. Instr. and Meth., v.A 614, 2010, p.179.

G.H. Hoffstaetter, et. al. "Intra Beam Scattering in Linear Accelerators, Especially ERLS" Proceedings EPAC08, Genoa, ITALY, v., 2008, p..

C. Gulliford, et al. "The NTMAT EPICS-DD Virtual Accelerator for the Cornell ERL Injector" 2010 International Particle Accelerator Conference, Kyoto, Japan, v., 2010, p..

M. Liepe, et. al. "The Cornell High-Current ERL Injector Cryomodule" Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on RF Superconductivity, Berlin, Germany, September 20 - 25, v., 2009, p.27.

M. Liepe, et. al. "SRF Experience with the Cornell High-Current ERL Injector Prototype" Proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 4 - 8, v., 2009, p..

A N Ganshin, X Mi, E N Smith and G H Hoffstaetter "Use of quartz tuning forks for sensitive, in-situ measurements of helium properties during SRF cavity tests" Journal of Instrumentation,, v.8, 2013, p.. doi:http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/8/04/P04007 

A.B. Temnykh, et. al. "Beam Losses Due to Intra-beam and Residual Gas Scattering for Cornell's Energy Recovery Linac" Proceedings EPAC08, Genoa, ITALY, v., 2008, p..

C. Gulliford, et al. "Linear Optics Modeling in the Cornell ERL Injector" Proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 4 - 8, v., 2009, p..

Georg Hoffstaetter, et. al. "Equilibrium Ion Distribution in the Presence of Clearing Electrodes and its Influence on Electron Dynamics" Physical Review ST-AB11, v.070701, 2008, p..

F. Loehl, et al. "High Current and High Brightness Electron Sources" 2010 International Particle Accelerator Conference, Kyoto, Japan, v., 2010, p..

M. Liepe, et. al. "Robustness of the Superconducting Mulitcell Cavity Design for the Cornell Energy Recovery Linac" Proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 4 - 8, v., 2009, p..

I.V. Bazarov, et. el. "Thermal Emittance and Response Time Measurements of a GaN Photocathode" Journal of Applied Physics, v.105, 2009, p.1077.

N. Valles, et al. "Cavity Design for Cornell's Energy Recovery Linac" Proceedings of IPAC10, Kyoto, Japan, v., 2010, p..

E. Chojnacki, et al. "DC Conductivity of RF Absorbing Materials" Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on RF Superconductivity, Berlin, Germany, September 20 - 25, v., 2009, p.643.

Georg Hoffstaetter, et. al. "Compensation of Wake-field-Driven Energy Spread in Energy Recovery Linacs" Physical Review ST-AB11, v.070701, 2008, p..

V. Shemelin and G. Hoffstaetter "Analytical relationships between elliptic cavity shape and fields." Phys. Rev. Special topics - Accelerators and Beams, v.17, 2014, p.p. 1-7. doi:https://journals.aps.org/prstab/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.17.102001 

I.V. Bazarov, et. el. "Thermal Emittance and Response Time Measurements of Negative Electron Affinity Photocathodes" Journal of Applied Physics, v.054901, 2008, p.103.

R. Wolf, et al. "Wake Fields in the Cornell ERL Injector" Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on RF Superconductivity, Berlin, Germany, September 20 - 25, v., 2009, p.519\.

Siddharth Karkare, Dimitre Dimitrov, William Schaff, Luca Cultrera, Adam Bartnik, Xianghong Liu, Eric Sawyer, Teresa Esposito, and Ivan Bazarov "Monte Carlo charge transport and photoemission from negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes" J. Appl. Phys., v.113, 2013, p.. doi:http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jap/113/10/10.1063/1.4794822 

C.E. Mayes, et al. "Exact CSR Wakes for the 1-D Model" Proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 4 - 8, v., 2009, p..

D.H. Dowell, et al. "Cathode R&D for Future Light Sources" Nucl. Instr. and Meth., v.A 622, 2010, p.685.

I.V. Bazarov, et el. "Benchmarking of 3D Space Charge Codes Using Direct Phase Space Measurements from Photoemissions High Voltage DC Gun" Physical Review Special Topics: Accelerator Beam 11, v., 2008, p..

N. Nishimori, et. al. "DC Gun Technological Challenges" Proceedings of the ERL09, v., 2009, p..

K. Smolenski, et. al. "Design and Performance of the Cornell ERL DC Photoemission Gun" Proceedings of 18th International Spin Physics Symposium 2008, AIP Confernece Proceedings 1149, v., 2009, p..

V. Shemelin, N. Valles "Improved accuracy of measurements of complex permittivity and permeability using transmission lines" Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Research, v.A767, 2014, p.p. 385 ?. doi:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016890021400905X 

N. Valles, et al. "Seven-Cell Cavity Optimization for Cornell's Energy Recovery Linac" Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on RF Superconductivity, Berlin, Germany, September 20 - 25, v., 2009, p.538.

E. Chojnacki, et al. "Design of an ERL Linac Cryomodule" Proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 4 - 8, v., 2009, p..

I.V. Bazarov, et el. "Calculation of Cherent Synchrotron Radiation in General Particle Tracer" Proceedings EPAC08, Genoa, ITALY, v., 2008, p.118.

N. Valles, et al. "Baseline Cavity Design for Cornell's Energy Recovery Linac" Proceedings of the 2010 25th International Linear Accelerator Conference, Tsukuba, Japan, v., 2010, p..

Z. Conway, et al. "Electromagnetic and Mechanical Properties of the Cornell ERL Injector Cryomodule" Proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 4 - 8, v., 2009, p..

G.H. Hoffstaetter, et. al. "Challenges for Beams in an ERL Extention to CESR" Proceedings EPAC08, Genoa, ITALY, v., 2008, p..

P. McIntosh, et. al. "Preparations for Assembly of the International ERL Cryomodule at Daresbury Laboratory" Proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 4 - 8, v., 2009, p..

F.E. Hannon, et al. "Phase Space Tomography Using the Cornell ERL DC Gun" Proceedings EPAC08, Genoa, ITALY, v., 2008, p..

V. Veshcherevich, et al. "Input Coupler for Main Linac of Cornell ERL" Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on RF Superconductivity, Berlin, Germany, September 20 - 25, v., 2009, p.543.

V. Shemelin "Suppression of HOMs in a Multicell Superconducting Cavity for Cornell's ERL" Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on RF Superconductivity, Berlin, Germany, September 20 - 25, v., 2009, p.528.

I.V. Bazarov, et. el. "Efficient Temporal Shaping of Electron Distributions for High Brightness Photoemission Electron Guns" Physical Review Special Topics: Accelerator Beam, v.040702, 2008, p.11.

C.E. Mayes, et al. "Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Simulations for the Cornell Energy Linac" Proceedings of IPAC10, Kyoto, Japan, v., 2010, p..

D. Bilderback, et al. "The Cornell Energy Recovery Linac: Update on a Future Source of Coherent Hard X-Rays" Synchrotron Radiation News, v., 2009, p..

S.A. Belomestnykh, et. al. "Commissioning of the Cornell ERL Injector RF Systems" Proceedings EPAC08, Genoa, ITALY, v., 2008, p..

S.A. Belomestnykh, et. al. "Multipacting-free Transistions Between Cavities and Beam-Pipes" Nucl. Instr. and Meth., v.A 595, 2008, p.293.

David C. Sagan, et. al. "CSR Including Shielding in the Beam Dynamics Code Bmad" Proceedings EPAC08, Genoa, ITALY, v., 2008, p..

C.E. Mayes, et al. "Cornell Energy Recovery Linac Lattice and Layout" Proceedings of IPAC10, Kyoto, Japan, v., 2010, p..

D.C. Sagan, et. al. "Extended 1D Method for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Including Shielding" Physical Review ST-AB11, v.12, 2009, p..

I.V. Bazarov "Initial Beam Results from the Cornell High-Current ERL Injector Prototype" Proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, v., 2009, p..

J.A. Crittenden, et al. "Developments for Cornell's X-Ray ERL" Proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 4 - 8, v., 2009, p..

F.A. Laham, et al. "An Extension of Cornell's Energy Recovery Linac for Compressed High-Charge Bunches" Proceedings of IPAC10, Kyoto, Japan, v., 2010, p..

I.V. Bazarov, et. el. "Maximum Achievable Beam Brightness from Photoinjectors" Physical Review Letters, v.102, 2009, p..

Z. Conway, et al. "Fast Piezoelectric Actuator Control of Microphonics in the CW Cornell ERL Injector Cryomodule" Proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 4 - 8, v., 2009, p..

M. Liepe, et al. "Status of the Cornell ERL Injector Cryomodule" Proceedings of the 2010 25th International Linear Accelerator Conference, Tsukuba, Japan, v., 2010, p..

S. Belomestnykh, et. al. "Multipactor in Minimum Electric Field Regions of Transmission Lines and Superconducting RF Cavities" Proceedings of the XXIV Linear Accelerator Conference, Victoria, BC, Canada, September 29 - October 3, 2008, v., 2008, p.860.


Project Outcomes Report

Disclaimer

This Project Outcomes Report for the General Public is displayed verbatim as submitted by the Principal Investigator (PI) for this award. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this Report are those of the PI and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation; NSF has not approved or endorsed its content.

This report serves as a brief summary, prepared specifically for the public, of the nature and outcomes of this NSF-funded project and is in addition to the final project report.

Accelerated particle beams have a wide range of applications from the basic sciences to the production of computer chips with yet higher information density and to truck- or ship-penetrating investigation systems for border security. Nuclear physics and elementary particle physics has relied on accelerators for decades and many Nobel prizes have only become possible with these instruments. X-ray science uses focused x-rays, usually from accelerators, to investigate materials, from hair fractures in airplane wings to the atomic structure of viruses, of proteins, or of pharmaceuticals. 

This grant developed components of and strategies for a new kind of accelerator, the Energy-Recovery Linac, which produces x-ray beams with revolutionary brightness. Their x-ray beam would be so narrow that it behaves more like a laser than a light bulb, revolutionizing the kind of materials that can be analyzed: individual biological cells, individual portions, and even individual atoms embedded in matter. 

Accelerators with the largest current of particles are circular, storing particles for millions of turns. It is very efficient that each particle traverses an application millons of times, but these accelerators have the drawback that the many turns make the beam-sizes relatively large, and they only allow applications that hardly disturb the beam, lest it be destroyed in millions of disturbances. Accelerators without these drawbacks are linear, accelerating narrow beam straight onto an application, where the beam can interact strongly before it is stopped. Alas, these accelerators can only have very little current, because each particle is used only once.

This grant focused on a new kind of accelerator, the Energy-Recovery Linac, which has the advantages of both, circular and linear accelerators and the drawbacks of neither. 

This accelerator produces the narrow high-quality beam of a linear accelerator with the high current and efficiency of a circular accelerator, allowing applications that strongly interact with the beam. Particle beams are accelerated in a linac and are therefore narrow and can interact strongly with an application, but their energy is recaptured by deceleration before they are stopped. Each particle is used only once, but its energy is recaptured and used to accelerate new beam, leading to high efficiencies and high currents.

In a preceding grant, (Phase 1A: Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) Technology R&D), equipment needed for an Energy-Recover Linac was developed, in this grant we commissioned and operated it, pushing many parameters to world-record levels and showing that the beam parameters needed for a hard X-ray ERL can indeed be produced. Major achievements are the world’s largest current from a photo-emitter electron gun, the largest brightness electron beam, and the lowest energy loss of an accelerator cavity in a linear accelerator. Six of such cavities were combined into a 10m long linear accelerator optimized for ERL operation. All major components are now ready to build this new kind of accelerator to revolutionize x-ray science and other applications.

These world records have been recognized by other laboratories and we have obtained funding by LCLS-II at SLAC to use our ERL equipment in research for this x-ray laser, we have obtained funding from an industrial company to study it’s use in computer-chip production, and we have obtained funding to use it in a 4-turn ERL with FFAG arcs to prototype components of eRHIC, reducing some of the main risk drivers for this large nuclear-physics accelerator.

 


Last Modified: 04/04/2016
Modified by: Georg H&...

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