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Research Spending & Results

Award Detail

Doing Business As Name:SUNY at Buffalo
  • Qiaoqiang Gan
  • (716) 645-1152
Award Date:09/30/2011
Estimated Total Award Amount: $ 248,593
Funds Obligated to Date: $ 248,593
  • FY 2011=$248,593
Start Date:10/01/2011
End Date:09/30/2015
Transaction Type:Grant
Awarding Agency Code:4900
Funding Agency Code:4900
CFDA Number:47.041
Primary Program Source:040100 NSF RESEARCH & RELATED ACTIVIT
Award Title or Description:Collaborative Research: The Hybrid Integration of Plasmonic Interferometer Sensors and Active Optoelectronic Devices on a Single Microfluidic Chip
Federal Award ID Number:1128086
DUNS ID:038633251
Parent DUNS ID:020657151

Awardee Location

Street:520 Lee Entrance
Awardee Cong. District:26

Primary Place of Performance

Organization Name:Electical Engineering Department, SUNY at Buffalo
Street:117 Bonner Hall
Cong. District:26

Abstract at Time of Award

The objective of this program is to create a highly integrated sensor system through hybrid integration of passive plasmonic interferometers and Si waveguide array coupled active optoelectronic devices on a single microfluidic chip for low cost, real-time, label-free, lens-free, and multiplexed sensing applications. The proposed device provides a compact and portable sensing solution for point-of-care diagnostics that does not currently exist but is critical for overcoming size and cost barriers of conventional angular-tunable, prism-based surface plasmon resonance systems. The intellectual merit is to integrate chip-scale semiconductor light sources and detectors with plasmonic sensors on a single chip so that light does not need to be coupled into/out of the sensors for analysis. Vertical plasmonic interferometers will perform the sensing function through intensity interrogation at a single wavelength. Curved silicon waveguides are proposed to interconnect active optoelectronic devices and plasmonic interferometers and enhance the sensor performance by preventing uncoupled light from entering the detector. Novel methods to obtain on-chip cancellation of temperature-induced signal drift will also be investigated. The broader impacts are to investigate chip-scale all-in-one sensor platforms and integrate research and education. The outcome of the proposed research will have enormous long-term impacts on biosensing, health care and the national needs. The main goals of the education and outreach program are to enhance the PIs? undergraduate laboratory courses, improve the participation of graduate and undergraduate students in cutting-edge research in nanophotonics and biophotonics, and provide opportunities for under-represented groups in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines.

Publications Produced as a Result of this Research

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D. Ji, H. Song , X. Zeng , H. Hu , K. Liu , N. Zhang, Q. Gan "Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns" Scientific Reports, v.4, 2014, p.4498.

K. Liu, H. Xu, H. Hu, Q. Gan, A. Cartwright "One-step fabrication of graded rainbow-colored holographic photopolymer reflection gratings" Adv. Mater., v.24, 2012, p.1604.

K. Liu, S. Jiang, D. Ji, X. Zeng, N. Zhang, H. Song, Y. Xu, Q. Gan "Super absorbing ultraviolet metasurface" IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett., v.27, 2015, p.1539.

H. Hu, X. Zeng, L. Wang, Y. Xu, G. Song, Q. Gan "Surface Plasmon Coupling Efficiency from Nanoslit Apertures to Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguides" Appl. Phys. Lett, v.101, 2012, p..

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, Y. Jeon, K. Surawathanawises, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli "Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for sensitive on-chip biosensing" ACS NANO, v.5, 2011, p.9836.

H. Song, S. Jiang, D. Ji, X. Zeng, N. Zhang, K. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Xu, Q. Gan "Nanocavity absorption enhancement for two-dimensional material monolayer systems" Opt. Express, v.23, 2015, p.7120.

C. Tong, J. Yun, H. Song, Q. Gan, W. Anderson "Plasmonic-enhanced Si Schottky barrier solar cells" Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, v.120, 2014, p.591.

H. Hu, X. Zeng, C. Tong, W. Anderson, Q. Gan, J. Deng, S. Jiang "Polarization-insensitive metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures for ultra-fast ultraviolet detectors" Plasmonics, v.8, 2013, p..

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli "Plasmonic interferometers for label-free multiplexed sensing" Opt. Express, v.21, 2013, p..

K. Liu, X. Zeng, S. Jiang, D. Ji, H. Song, N. Zhang, Q. Gan "Large-scale lithography-free metasurface with spectrally tunable super absorption" Nanoscale, v.6, 2014, p.5599.

Z. Liu, D. Ji, X. Zeng, H. Song, J. Liu, S. Jiang, Q. Gan "Surface dispersion engineering of Ag?Au alloy films" Appl. Phys. Express, v.8, 2015, p.042601.

H. Hu, D. Ji, X. Zeng, K. Liu, Q. Gan "Rainbow Trapping in Hyperbolic Metamaterial Waveguide" Scientific Reports, v.3, 2013, p..

K. Liu, B. Zeng, H. Song, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, Z. H. Kafafi "Super absorption of ultra-thin organic photovoltaic films" Optics Communications, v.314, 2014, p.48.

H. Hu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, L. Zhu, Q. Gan "Efficient End-fire Coupling of Surface Plasmons on Flat Metal Surfaces for Improved Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer" J. Appl. Phys., v.113, 2013, p..

X. Zeng, H. Hu, Y. Gao, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Song, K. Liu, S. Jiang, Q. Gan "Phase change dispersion of plasmonic nano-objects" Scientific Reports, v.5, 2015, p.12665.

H. Hu, X. Zeng, L. Wang, Y. Xu, G. Song, Q. Gan "Surface Plasmon Coupling Efficiency from Nanoslit Apertures to Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguides" Appl. Phys. Lett., v.101, 2012, p.1.

H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, S. Jiang, Q. Gan "Nanocavity enhancement for ultra-thin film optical absorption" Adv. Mater., v.26, 2014, p.2737.

N. Zhang, K. Liu, Z. Liu, H. Song, X. Zeng, D. Ji, A. Cheney, S. Jiang, Q. Gan "Ultra-broadband metasurface for efficient light trapping and localization: a universal surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate for ?all? excitation wavelengths" Adv. Mater. Interfaces, v.2, 2015, p.1500142.

H. Xu, K. Liu, H. Hu, Q. Gan, A. Cartwright "Holographic Photopolymer Reflection Micro-concentrator Arrays: Design, Fabrication and Characterization" J. Mater. Chem., v.22, 2012, p..

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, F. Bartoli "Research Highlights on Biosensors based on Plasmonic Nanostructures" IEEE Photonics Journal, v.6, 2014, p.0700805.

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, F. Bartoli "Spatially selective plasmonic sensing using metallic nanoslit arrays" IEEE JSTQE, v.20, 2013, p.6900306.

K. Liu, H. Hu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, H. Song, S. Jiang, Q. Gan "Wide-angle and polarization-insensitive perfect absorber for organic photovoltaic layers" IEEE Photonics Tech Lett, v.25, 2013, p..

T. Moein, D. Ji, X. Zeng, K. Liu, Q. Gan, A. Cartwright "Holographic photopolymer linear variable filter with enhanced blue reflection" ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, v.6, 2014, p.3081.

X. Zeng , Y. Gao , H. Hu , D. Ji , Q. Gan, Filbert J. Bartoli "A metal-insulator-metal plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer array for multiplexed sensing" J. Appl. Phys., v.113, 2013, p..

N. Zhang, K. Liu, H. Song, Z. Liu, D. Ji, X. Zeng, S. Jiang, Q. Gan "Refractive index engineering of metal-dielectric nanocomposite thin films for optical super absorber" Appl. Phys. Lett., v.104, 2014, p.203112.

L. Wang, S. Jiang, H. Hu, H. Song, W. Zeng, Q. Gan "Artificial Birefringent Metallic Planar Structures for Terahertz Wave Polarization Manipulation" Opt. Lett., v.39, 2014, p.311.

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli "Plasmonic Interferometric Sensor Arrays for High-Performance Label-Free Biomolecular Detection" Lab Chip, v.13, 2013, p.4755.

Project Outcomes Report


This Project Outcomes Report for the General Public is displayed verbatim as submitted by the Principal Investigator (PI) for this award. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this Report are those of the PI and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation; NSF has not approved or endorsed its content.

This project aimed to develop nanoplasmonic structures with a focus on designing, fabricating, and characterizing novel nanopatterned plasmonic metal films and biosensing devices for real-time, label-free sensing of analytes with high sensitivity and scalability. During the four year research period, we obtained the following achievements:

1. Designed an end-fire coupling mechanism to enhance the amplitude of the plasmonic interference signal for on-chip SPP coupling with waveguide networks. We show theoretically that end-fire coupling is a promising candidate to deliver light into regions with subwavelength dimension on flat metal surfaces. A design and optimization principle is presented for a flat metal surface and further demonstrated in a plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer platform. The physical mechanism is discussed based on reciprocity. By considering the radiation pattern and position of the incidence, the coupling efficiency at the metal/air interface can be enhanced up to 77.6%~95.4%, which is promising to develop energy-efficient applications for on-chip plasmonic waveguide networks and sensors.

2. To overcome the difficulties for multiplexed detection, we proposed a plasmonic MZI based on the interference between SI-SPP and MIM-SPP modes supported in a multi-layered MIM structure. Since the output slit is hidden by the bottom metal layer from the input side, this design release the requirement to illuminate on only one slit. The design principle is explored theoretically and numerically, showing a high sensitivity of 2.2×103 nm/RIU for wavelength modulation at ~850nm. For multiplexed intensity-modulated biosensing, a surface groove grating is introduced to suppress the cross-talk between adjacent sensor elements. FDTD modeling results show that the element density of the proposed MIM-MZI array can be enhanced by 9 – 25 times compared with conventional multiplexing SPR sensing systems.

3. Slit-groove structure was employed to demonstrate real-time, sensitive and multiplexed sensing applications. It avoided the non-collinear optical setup in vertical plasmonic MZI (ACS NANO 5, 9836 (2011) without using multi-layered structure utilized by MIM-MZI (J. Appl. Phys. 113, 113102 (2013)). It experimentally demonstrated a sensor resolution of 1×10-5 RIU for wavelength modulation and 5×10-5 for multiplexed intensity modulation, with a 10×30 μm2 footprint that is much smaller than vertical plasmonic MZI. 

4. To further enhance the sensor performance, a circular plasmonic interferometer is proposed to better balance the intensities of two interfering components, leading to a much higher interference contrast. A 12×12 array (150×150 μm2) of circular plasmonic interferometer demonstrated a record low sensor resolution of  8×10-7 RIU for plasmonic refractometric sensing, permitting sensitive protein surface coverage as low as 0.4pg/mm2. This structure may result in a high throughput nanosensor array to resolve biomolecules (as illustrated in Figure 1). This sensing platform is further integrated with a cell-phone based microscope, which is promising to develop a worldwide senor network for point-of-care applications.

5. We proposed a practical far-field method to use plasmonic interferometers for extraction of the intrinsic phase shift of SPs during its interaction with nano-objects. The relationship between this intrinsic phase shift and wavelength, which we call intrinsic phase dispersion, was investigated for the first. The extracted intrinsic phase dispersion perfectly compensated phase mismatch between experimental and analytical interference patterns, which phenomenon was observed in previous literature.

6. This grant produces 21 journal publica...

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